Events – front page


New paper on model validation accepted

Congrats on Yu (Andy) Huang and Lucas Parra’s paper on TES model validation accepted to be published on eLife. Also thank Anli Liu’s team from NYU School of Medicine for all the experimental recordings.

Here is the link to the preprint online, and a summary video.model-eg


Bikson’s tDCS work again in The Atlantic, Feb 22, 2017

The Atlantic features work supported by Bikson lab and Soterix Medical at NYU to treat MS Fatigue with TDCS at home.

Zapping Your Brain at Home to Cure Fatigue

How a low dose of electrical current is helping some patients overcome tiredness and cognition problems

Read the story link

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New Paper: Mechanisms of tDCS and dose response

Mechanisms and Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

Dose-Response: An International Journal January-March 2017:1-22 DOI: 10.1177/1559325816685467

James Giordano, Marom Bikson, Emily S. Kappenman, Vincent P. Clark, H. Branch Coslett, Michael R. Hamblin, Roy Hamilton, Ryan Jankord, Walter J. Kozumbo, R. Andrew McKinley, Michael A. Nitsche, J. Patrick Reilly, Jessica Richardson, Rachel Wurzman, and Edward Calabrese

Abstract: The US Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a meeting of researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, engineering, and medicine to discuss most pressing issues facing ongoing research in the field of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and related techniques. In this study, we present opinions prepared by participants of the meeting, focusing on the most promising areas of research, immediate and future goals for the field, and the potential for hormesis theory to inform tDCS research. Scientific, medical, and ethical considerations support the ongoing testing of tDCS in healthy and clinical popu- lations, provided best protocols are used to maximize safety. Notwithstanding the need for ongoing research, promising appli- cations include enhancing vigilance/attention in healthy volunteers, which can accelerate training and support learning. Commonly, tDCS is used as an adjunct to training/rehabilitation tasks with the goal of leftward shift in the learning/treatment effect curves. Although trials are encouraging, elucidating the basic mechanisms of tDCS will accelerate validation and adoption. To this end, biomarkers (eg, clinical neuroimaging and findings from animal models) can support hypotheses linking neurobiological mechanisms and behavioral effects. Dosage can be optimized using computational models of current flow and understanding dose–response. Both biomarkers and dosimetry should guide individualized interventions with the goal of reducing variability. Insights from other applied energy domains, including ionizing radiation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and low-level laser (light) therapy, can be prudently leveraged.

Download: Final OnLine Proceedings – Dose Response Journal

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New paper: Model of ECT

Computational models of Bitemporal, Bifrontal and Right Unilateral ECT predict differential stimulation of brain regions associated with efficacy and cognitive side effects.

Bai S, Gálvez V, Dokos S, Martin D, Bikson M, Loo C.
Eur Psychiatry. 2016 Dec 29;41:21-29. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2016.09.005. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28049077

Full paper: 10.1016@j.eurpsy.2016.09.005


BACKGROUND: Extensive clinical research has shown that the efficacy and cognitive outcomes of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are determined, in part, by the type of electrode placement used. Bitemporal ECT (BT, stimulating electrodes placed bilaterally in the frontotemporal region) is the form of ECT with relatively potent clinical and cognitive side effects. However, the reasons for this are poorly understood.
OBJECTIVE: This study used computational modelling to examine regional differences in brain excitation between BT, Bifrontal (BF) and Right Unilateral (RUL) ECT, currently the most clinically-used ECT placements. Specifically, by comparing similarities and differences in current distribution patterns between BT ECT and the other two placements, the study aimed to create an explanatory model of critical brain sites that mediate antidepressant efficacy and sites associated with cognitive, particularly memory, adverse effects.
METHODS: High resolution finite element human head models were generated from MRI scans of three subjects. The models were used to compare differences in activation between the three ECT placements, using subtraction maps.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In this exploratory study on three realistic head models, Bitemporal ECT resulted in greater direct stimulation of deep midline structures and also left temporal and inferior frontal regions. Interpreted in light of existing knowledge on depressive pathophysiology and cognitive neuroanatomy, it is suggested that the former sites are related to efficacy and the latter to cognitive deficits. We hereby propose an approach using binarised subtraction models that can be used to optimise, and even individualise, ECT therapies

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New paper: Analytical and numerical modeling of the hearing system

De Paolis A, Bikson M, Nelson JT, de Ru JA, Packer M, Cardoso L. Analytical and numerical modeling of the hearing system: advances towards the assessment of hearing damage. Hear Res. pii: S0378-5955(16)30278-7. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2017.01.015. 2017

Full paper: Cardoso_Hearing_2017

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Lucas Parra lectures at CCNY – Feb 9

Thursday, February 09, 2017, 03:30PM, The City College of New York (CCNY) NAC 4/156

Prof. Luca Parra (CCNY Biomedical Engineering), On Brainwaves and Videos and Video Games 

What are the immediate neural response of the brain to natural stimuli, in particular audiovisual narratives and video games? To answer this question we record EEG while subjects are exposed to the identical audiovisual narratives and measure inter-subject correlation, which captures how similarly and reliably different people respond to the same natural stimulus. We find that inter-subject correlation of EEG is strongly modulated by attention, correlates with long term memory, and provides a quantitative estimate for “audience engagement”. In children and adolescents watching videos we find changes with age and gender that are consistent with an increase in diversity of brain responses as they mature. During video game play, which are unique experiences that preclude correlation across subjects, we measure the strength of stimulus-response correlations instead. We found that correlation with both auditory and visual responses drive the correlation observed between subjects for video and that they are are modulated by attention in video game play. Importantly, the strongest response to visual and auditory features had nearly identical neural origin suggesting that the dominant response of the brain to natural stimuli is supramodal.


Workshop and lecture by Bikson at Inter. Neuropsychological Society: Feb 1, 2

Feb 1, 2017 9:00 AM-12:00 PM: CE Workshop 2. Best-Practices of Transcranial Direct Current
Stimulation (tDCS) for Effective and Reliable Outcomes
Presenter: Marom Bikson
Location: Salon D (Mardi Gras Ballroom)

Download slides: INS_tDCS_2017_Bikson_Final.compressed


Feb 2, 2017. 9:00 AM-10:30 AM. Invited Symposium 1. Electrical Brain Stimulation and Cognitive Disorders
Chair: Marom Bikson
Presenters: Marom Bikson, Adam J. Woods, Leigh Charvet
Location: Carondelet (Grand Ballroom)

Download slides: INS_2017final2


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New Paper- Human cochlear hydrodynamics: high-resolution μCT-based model

Human cochlear hydrodynamics: A high-resolution μCT-based finite element study

Annalisa De Paolis, Hirobumi Watanabe, Jeremy T. Nelson, Marom Bikson, Mark Packer, Luis Cardoso

Journal of Biomechanics 50 (2017) 209–216

PDF: Human cochlear hydrodynamics   Journal Link

Abstract: Measurements of perilymph hydrodynamics in the human cochlea are scarce, being mostly limited to the fluid pressure at the basal or apical turn of the scalae vestibuli and tympani. Indeed, measurements of fluid pressure or volumetric flow rate have only been reported in animal models. In this study we imaged the human ear at 6.7 and 3-mm resolution using mCT scanning to produce highly accurate 3D models of the entire ear and particularly the cochlea scalae. We used a contrast agent to better distinguish soft from hard tissues, including the auditory canal, tympanic membrane, malleus, incus, stapes, ligaments, oval and round window, scalae vestibule and tympani. Using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach and this anatomically correct 3D model of the human cochlea, we examined the pressure and perilymph flow velocity as a function of location, time and frequency within the auditory range. Perimeter, surface, hydraulic diameter, Womersley and Reynolds numbers were computed every 45° of rotation around the central axis of the cochlear spiral. CFD results showed both spatial and temporal pressure gradients along the cochlea. Small Reynolds number and large Womersley values indicate that the perilymph fluid flow at auditory frequencies is laminar and its velocity profile is plug-like. The pressure was found 102–106° out of phase with the fluid flow velocity at the scalae vestibule and tympani, respectively. The average flow velocity was found in the sub-mm/s to nm/s range at 20–100 Hz, and below the nm/s range at 1–20 kHz.

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New Paper: Temperature increases at the skin surface during tDCS

Minimal heating at the Skin surface during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

Khadka N.; Zannou A.L.; Zunura F.; Truong D.Q.; Dmochowski J.; Bikson M. 2017. Minimal Heating at the Skin Surface During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

Neuromodulation 2017; E-pub ahead of print. DOI:10.1111/ner.12554

Download PDF


To assess if transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) produces a temperature change at the skin surface, if any change is stimulation polarity (anode or cathode) specific, and the contribution of passive heating (joule heat) or blood flow on such change.

Material and Methods:
Temperature differences (ΔTs) in an agar phantom study and an in vivo study (forearm stimulation) including 20 volunteers with both experimental measures and finite element method (FEM) multiphysics prediction (current flow and bioheat) models of skin comprising three tissue layers (epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer with blood perfusion) or of the phantom for active stimulation and control cases were compared. Temperature was measured during pre, post, and stimulation phases for both phantom and subject’s forearms using thermocouples.

In the phantom, ΔT under both anode and cathode, compared to control, was not significantly different and less than 0.1°C. Stimulation of subjects resulted in a gradual increase in temperature under both anode and cathode electrodes, compared to control (at t = 20 min: ΔTanode = 0.9°C, ΔTcathode = 1.1°C, ΔTcontrol = 0.05°C). The FEM phantom model predicted comparable maximum ΔT of 0.27°C and 0.28°C (at t = 20 min) for the control and anode/cathode cases, respectively. The FEM skin model predicted a maximum ΔT at t = 20 min of 0.98°C for control and 1.36°C under anode/cathode electrodes.

Taken together, our results indicate a moderate and nonhazardous increase in temperature at the skin surface during 2 mA tDCS that is independent of polarity, and results from stimulation induced blood flow rather than joule heat.



Two new papers on cellular mechanisms of tDCS

Published in the same issue of Brain Stimulation.


—- Direct Current Stimulation Alters Neuronal Input/Output Function.

Lafon B, Rahman A, Bikson M, Parra LC. Brain Stimul. 2016 Sep 1. pii: S1935-861X(16)30248-0. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.08.014.

PDF: IO_tDCS_2017


— Direct Current Stimulation Modulates LTP and LTD: Activity Dependence and Dendritic Effects

Kronberg G, Bridi M, Abel T, Bikson M, Parra LC Brain Stimul. 2016 10 (2017) 51–58

PDF: Dendrites_tDCS_2017


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Dr. Bikson chairs NYC Neuromodulation 2017 – Jan 13-15

Conference information

NYC Neuromodulation 2017 will focus on technologies and mechanism for advanced brain stimulation in areas that include transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and other emerging areas. Applications span treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, neurorehabilitation, and performance enhancement. Interactive lectures from key opinion leaders and emerging young scientists, poster sessions with abstracts published in Brain Stimulation and extensive opportunities to network with colleagues, along with an exhibit showcase featuring the latest neuromodulation technologies are all part of the main conference agenda.

This conference is among the most forward-looking neuromodulation meetings with the goal of advancing innovation from bench-top to bedside and home. Given the increased media, public, and commercial interest in personal non-invasive brain stimulation, the 2017 meeting will emphasize emerging “consumer” technologies, and their scientific and regulatory barriers. The off-label use of new clinical protocols will be addressed from scientific, medical, and regulatory perspectives. The conference will also focus on timely and novel targets of neuromodulation including glia, as well as new waveforms including high-rate (10 kHz) stimulation. Representatives from funding agencies and journal editors will be available to discuss priorities. NYC Neuromodulation is the largest meeting focused on non-invasive neuromodulation in North America, but this year it considers the role of invasive and non-invasive techniques in the continuum of care.

Chair: Marom Bikson




New paper: Cerebellar tDCS post-Stroke

Front. Hum. Neurosci., 12 January 2017 |

Cerebellar tDCS: A Novel Approach to Augment Language Treatment Post-stroke

People with post-stroke aphasia may have some degree of chronic deficit for which current rehabilitative treatments are variably effective. Accumulating evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be useful for enhancing the effects of behavioral aphasia treatment. However, it remains unclear which brain regions should be stimulated to optimize effects on language recovery. Here, we report on the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS in augmenting language recovery in SMY, who sustained bilateral MCA infarct resulting in aphasia and anarthria. We investigated the effects of 15 sessions of anodal cerebellar tDCS coupled with spelling therapy using a randomized, double-blind, sham controlled within-subject crossover trial. We also investigated changes in functional connectivity using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before and 2 months post-treatment. Both anodal and sham treatments resulted in improved spelling to dictation for trained and untrained words immediately after and 2 months post-treatment. However, there was greater improvement with tDCS than with sham, especially for untrained words. Further, generalization to written picture naming was only noted during tDCS but not with sham. The resting state functional connectivity data indicate that improvement in spelling was accompanied by an increase in cerebro-cerebellar network connectivity. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS to augment spelling therapy in an individual with large bilateral chronic strokes.


Full paper: fnhum-10-00695   Journal link: Link

Microsoft Word - Sebastian-CerebellartDCS_Revision_11_30_16.docx


Dr. Bikson quoted again in Scientific American and in New Scientist

Marom Bikson is quoted in two scientific magazines on his work on devices for non-invasive neuromodulation

“Do DIY Brain-Booster Devices Work?” Scientific American. Jan 10, 2017 LINK

“Zapping the brain really does seem to improve depression”, New Scientist. Jan 9, 2017 LINK



image curtsey Caputron


News paper on tDCS and Post-Stroke Aphasia

Use of Computational Modeling to Inform tDCS Electrode Montages for the Promotion of Language Recovery in Post-stroke Aphasia.

Galletta EE, Cancelli A, Cottone C, Simonelli I, Tecchio F, Bikson M, Marangolo P.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Nov-Dec;8(6):1108-15. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.06.018.

Download PDF: galletta2015



Dr. Bikson speaks at ACNP Annual Meeting 2016, Dec 6

Dr. Marom Bikson speaks at the 55th ACNP Annual Meeting on 12/6/2016

Download full slides: PDF

On “Direct Current Stimulation Accelerates Synaptic Models of Learning in Animals”  in Great Hall 5 from 8:30:00 AM to 9:45:00 AM



Seminar on FDA: Dr. Caicedo, Johnson & Johnson

Fall 2016 Seminar Series Fall 2016 Seminar Series Department of Biomedical Engineering Wednesday, Nov. 30 @ 3PM in Steinman Hall Rm 402

Patient-centric innovation intersection

Dr. Hugo Caicedo

Janssen-Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical R&D

Abstract: The current FDA-based roadmap to drug and product development as well as regulatory decision- making and labeling, is based on four Clinical outcome assessments (COAs): Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures, Clinician-reported outcome (ClinRO) measures, Observer-reported outcome (ObsRO) measures, and Performance outcome (PerfO) measures. In general, COAs are used to determine whether or not a therapy has demonstrated a net clinical benefit in a disease or health condition, in other words COAs assess safety and efficacy of a therapy. Under these conditions, individuals are subjected to “adequate and well-controlled studies”. The gap, however, is that in real life patients, in their natural environments, are under neither adequate nor well-controlled conditions, which limits both our capacity to understand the patient experience and our ability to develop innovated & targeted healthcare solutions. Additionally, current highly homogeneous and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) do not shed light on patient adherence to those therapies; about 50% of the patients with chronic diseases do not comply with medication therapy. During my presentation, I will talk about how three paradigms (Real World Evidence (RWE), Digital Analytics and Design Thinking) can converge and form a model that I created, the “Patient-centric innovation intersection”, to enable actionable insights for the development of targeted healthcare solutions, with particular focus in Diabetes therapy adherence.

Biosketch: Dr. Hugo Caicedo is a scientist subject matter expert in microfluidics, biomedical engineering and consumer healthcare at Janssen-Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical R&D in the Philadelphia area. There, he conducts preclinical research on drug discovery as well as strategic design on healthcare innovation to translate relevant science and technology into high-value partnerships that enable differentiated healthcare solutions. Currently, he is also a scholar trainee at the Corporate Sustainability and Innovation program at Harvard University. Dr. Caicedo holds a B.S in Electronics Engineering from the Universidad del Valle (Cali-Colombia) and a Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). He was the recipient of MIT, Bogazicy University, Antalya University (Turkey) and UniversitéPierre and Marie Curie (France) pre-doctoral fellowships as well as one Harvard-MIT/HST post-doctoral fellowship. Dr. Caicedo has multiple publications including several peer-reviewed papers, two book chapters and a provisional patent application. Additionally, he has been awarded more than 20 recognition awards including: 2011, Ph.D student, African Colombian of the year in academia; 2012, Mayor’s Civic Merit Medal of Cali given directly by the President of Colombia; 2012, Distinguished PhD Student speaker at the 3rd US-Turkey Advanced Study Institute on Global Healthcare Challenges; 2015, BMES4SUCCESS, highlighted by the US Biomedical Engineering Society, as one of three —and the only member from industry— successful earlier career members in biomedical engineering; and 2016 Honorable Speaker invitation at the Biotechnology World Convention in Sao Paulo, Brazil.



Now Available for Download: Two chapters from Neuromodulation Textbook

Textbook of Neuromodulation
Principles, Methods and Clinical Applications

Springer. ISBN: 978-1-4939-1407-4 


Methods and Technologies for Low-Intensity Transcranial Electrical Stimulation: Waveforms, Terminology, and Historical Notes
Page 7-16. Berkan Guleyupoglu, Pedro Schestatsky, Felipe Fregni, Marom Bikson

PDF: 10-1007978-1-4939-1408-12


A Role of Computational Modeling in Customization of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Susceptible Populations
Dennis Truong, Preet Minhas, Albert Mokrejs, Marom Bikson

PDF: 10-1007978-1-4939-1408-110



New Paper (and cover): Semantic Processing in Primary Progressive Aphasia

Direct current stimulation over the anterior temporal areas boosts semantic processing in primary progressive aphasia.

Teichmann M, Lesoil C, Godard J, Vernet M, Bertrand A, Levy R, Dubois B, Lemoine L, Truong DQ, Bikson M, Kas A, Valero-Cabré A. Ann Neurol. 2016 Nov;80(5):693-707. doi: 10.1002/ana.24766.

Download PDF: teichmann-et-al_annals-of-neurology_2016

Abstract: Objective: Noninvasive brain stimulation in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a promising approach. Yet, applied to single cases or insufficiently controlled small-cohort studies, it has not clarified its therapeutic value. We here address the effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the semantic PPA variant (sv-PPA), applying a rigorous study design to a large, homogeneous sv-PPA cohort. Methods: Using a double-blind, sham-controlled counterbalanced cross-over design, we applied three tDCS condi- tions targeting the temporal poles of 12 sv-PPA patients. Efficiency was assessed by a semantic matching task orthogonally manipulating “living”/”nonliving” categories and verbal/visual modalities. Conforming to predominantly left-lateralized damage in sv-PPA and accounts of interhemispheric inhibition, we applied left hemisphere anodal- excitatory and right hemisphere cathodal-inhibitory tDCS, compared to sham stimulation. Results: Prestimulation data, compared to 15 healthy controls, showed that patients had semantic disorders predomi- nating with living categories in the verbal modality. Stimulation selectively impacted these most impaired domains: Left- excitatory and right-inhibitory tDCS improved semantic accuracy in verbal modality, and right-inhibitory tDCS improved processing speed with living categories and accuracy and processing speed in the combined verbal 3 living condition. Interpretation: Our findings demonstrate the efficiency of tDCS in sv-PPA by generating highly specific intrasemantic effects. They provide “proof of concept” for future applications of tDCS in therapeutic multiday regimes, potentially driv- ing sustained improvement of semantic processing. Our data also support the hotly debated existence of a left temporal- pole network for verbal semantics selectively modulated through both left-excitatory and right-inhibitory brain stimulation.



New Paper: Design of Pivotal Trial of tDCS for Depression

Contemp Clin Trials. 2016 Nov;51:65-71. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2016.10.002. Epub 2016 Oct 15.

Study design and methodology for a multicentre, randomised controlled trial of transcranial direct current stimulation as a treatment for unipolar and bipolar depression.

Alonzo A, Aaronson S, Bikson M, Husain M, Lisanby S, Martin D, McClintock SM, McDonald WM, O’Reardon J, Esmailpoor Z, Loo C.

Download PDF: 10-1016j-cct-2016-10-002

Abstract: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a new, non-invasive neuromodulation approach for treating depression that has shown promising efficacy. The aim of this trial was to conduct the first international, multicentre randomised controlled trial of tDCS as a treatment for unipolar and bipolar depression. The study recruited 120 participants across 6 sites in the USA and Australia. Participants received active or sham tDCS (2.5mA, 20 sessions of 30min duration over 4weeks), followed by a 4-week open label active treatment phase and a 4-week taper phase. Mood and neuropsychological outcomes were assessed with the primary antidepressant outcome measure being the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). A neuropsychological battery was administered to assess safety and examine cognitive effects. The study also investigated the possible influence of genetic polymorphisms on outcomes. The trial was triple-blinded. Participants, tDCS treaters and study raters were blinded to each participant’s tDCS group allocation in the sham-controlled phase. Specific aspects of tDCS administration, device operation and group allocation were designed to optimise the integrity of blinding. Outcome measures will be tested using a mixed effects repeated measures analysis with the primary factors being Time as a repeated measure, tDCS condition (sham or active) and Diagnosis (unipolar or bipolar). A restricted number of random and fixed factors will be included as required to account for extraneous differences. As a promising treatment, tDCS has excellent potential for translation into widespread clinical use, being cost effective, portable, easy to operate and well tolerated.


Using Soterix Medical 1×1 CT platform: link      tdcsct_02-s4


Dr. Bikson speaks at National Academies, June 15

[Nov 18, 2016 Update: Proceeding of WorkShop Published: Download PDF: 23657]

Dr. Marom Bikson will speak at the

Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders

Hosted by the National Academies. Event Page

Slides here: QuantificationOfNeuromodulationDose_Bikson

When: June 14, 2016 – June 15, 2016 (1:30 PM Eastern). Dr. Bikson lectures on June 15 at 9:55 AM

Where: Keck Center • 500 Fifth St. NW, Washington, DC 20001

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New Paper: Tolerability of Long-Term Application of tES in Healthy Subjects

New Paper: Tolerability of Repeated Application of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation with Limited Outputs to Healthy Subjects


Brain Stimulation 2016 May 24. pii: S1935-861X(16)30104-8. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.05.008. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract: The safety and tolerability of limited output tES in clinical populations support a non-significant risk designation. The tolerability of long-term use in a healthy population had remained untested. We tested the tolerability and compliance of two tES waveforms, tDCS and modulated high frequency transcranial pulsed current stimulation (MHF-tPCS) compared to sham-tDCS, applied to healthy subjects for three to five days (17–20 minutes per day) per week for up to six weeks in a communal setting. MHF-tPCS consisted of asymmetric high-frequency pulses (7–11 kHz) having a peak amplitude of 10–20 mA peak, adjusted by subject, resulting in an average current of 5–7 mA. A total of 100 treatment blind healthy subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: tDCS (n = 33), MHF-tPCS (n = 30), or sham-tDCS (n = 37). In order to test the role of waveform, electrode type and montage were fixed across tES and sham-tDCS arms: high-capacity self-adhering electrodes on the right lateral forehead and back of the neck. We conducted 1905 sessions (636 sham-tDCS, 623 tDCS, and 646 MHF-tPCS sessions) on study volunteers over a period of six weeks. Common adverse events were primarily restricted to influences upon the skin and included skin tingling, itching, and mild burning sensations. The incidence of these events in the active tES treatment arms (MHF-tPCS, tDCS) was equivalent or significantly lower than their incidence in the sham-tDCS treatment arm. Other adverse events had a rarity (<5% incidence) that could not be significantly distinguished across the treatment groups. Some subjects were withdrawn from the study due to atypical headache (sham-tDCS n = 2, tDCS n = 2, and MHF-tPCS n = 3), atypical discomfort (sham-tDCS n = 0, tDCS n = 1, and MHF-tPCS n = 1), or atypical skin irritation (sham-tDCS n = 2, tDCS n = 8, and MHF-tPCS n = 1). The rate of compliance, elected sessions completed, for the MHF-tPCS group was significantly greater than the sham-tDCS group’s compliance (p = 0.007). There were no serious adverse events in any treatment condition. We conclude that repeated application of limited output tES across extended periods, limited to the hardware, electrodes, and protocols tested here, is well tolerated in healthy subjects, as previously observed in clinical populations.

Electrode configurations and montages. Identical electrodes and montages were ...


Special BME seminar. Kronberg and Huang – Oct 26

Special CCNY BME Seminar Oct 26, 2016 featuring two Neural Engineering Lab researchers.

3 PM in the CCNY BME conference room. Steinman Hall Room 402

Modulating synaptic plasticity with tDCS

Mr. Greg Kronberg

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York

Abstract: Synapses allow communication between neurons and guide the flow of information throughout the brain. Modification of synapses in response to experience, or synaptic plasticity, is thought to be a cellular mechanism for learning and memory. Noninvasive tools to alter synaptic plasticity are therefore highly desirable. Recently, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has received much attention as a such a tool. tDCS is the noninvasive application of weak DC electric current to the brain through electrodes on the scalp. In this talk I will discuss mechanisms by which tDCS may influence synaptic plasticity, and how this can inform tDCS protocols to improve learning and memory

Bio-sketch: Greg Kronberg is currently a PhD student in the Biomedical Engineering department at The City College of New York (CCNY), where he works under Lucas Parra. He received his BS in Biology from the University of Maryland and his MS in Biomedical Engineering from CCNY. His research focuses on the use of electrical brain stimulation to improve learning and memory.

Measurements and models of electric fields in the in vivo human brain during transcranial electric stimulation

Yu (Andy) Huang, Ph.D.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York

Abstract: Transcranial electric stimulation aims to stimulate the brain by applying weak electrical currents at the scalp. However, the magnitude and spatial distribution of electric fields in the human brain are unknown. Here we measure electric potentials intracranially in ten patients and estimate electric fields across the entire brain by leveraging calibrated current-flow models. Electric field magnitudes at the cortical surface reach values of 0.4 V/m, which is at the lower limit of effectiveness in animal studies. When individual anatomy is taken into account, the predicted electric field magnitudes match the recorded values with r=0.77. Modeling white matter anisotropy and different skull compartments does not improve accuracy, but correct magnitude estimates require an adjustment of conductivity values used in the literature. This is the first study to validate and calibrate current-flow models with in vivo intracranial recordings in humans, providing a solid foundation for targeting and interpretation of clinical trials.

Biosketch: Yu (Andy) Huang received his Ph.D. from Department of Biomedical Engineering, City College of New York. His research focuses on neuroimaging, image segmentation and computational modeling of image data. He received his B.S. and M.S. from University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, both in Biomedical Engineering.


Dr. Bikson and Dr. Parra speak at Mt Sinai – Oct 19

3rd BIC Symposium event website

The Brain Imaging Center at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Davis Auditorium (2nd floor) Hess Center for Science and Medicine
October 19, 2016

1:55-2:20 Lucas Parra, PhD (CCNY) – “On Brainwaves and Videos and Video Games”

3:15-3:40 Marom Bikson, PhD (CUNY) – “Non-invasive Brain Stimulation and Imaging” Download slides: marombikson_brainstimwithimaging_2016



Dr. Bikson lectures at NIBS Late-Summer School

Marom Bikson lectures at the Interdisciplinary Late-Summer School on Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation in Freiburg, Germany (Oct 12-16, 2016). Event details here

Download Bikson’s slides on “Translational aspects of tDCS: from rodent to humans” –  bikson_nibs_summerschool_2016

Download Bikson slides on “Modeling tDCS current flow: Hand-on practical” modelingworkshop_summer




New Paper: Skin redness and its influence on blinding in tDCS

Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface, Clinical Research

The Influence of Skin Redness on Blinding in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Studies: A Crossover Trial

Fernando Ezquerro, Adriano H. Moffa, Marom Bikson, Niranjan Khadka, Luana V. M. Aparicio, Bernardo de Sampaio-Junior, Felipe Fregni, Isabela M. Bensenor, Paulo A. Lotufo, Alexandre Costa Pereira, Andre R. Brunoni


To evaluate whether and to which extent skin redness (erythema) affects investigator blinding in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) trials.
Material and Methods
Twenty-six volunteers received sham and active tDCS, which was applied with saline-soaked sponges of different thicknesses. High-resolution skin images, taken before and 5, 15, and 30 min after stimulation, were randomized and presented to experienced raters who evaluated erythema intensity and judged on the likelihood of stimulation condition (sham vs. active). In addition, semi-automated image processing generated probability heatmaps and surface area coverage of erythema. Adverse events were also collected.
Erythema was present, but less intense in sham compared to active groups. Erythema intensity was inversely and directly associated to correct sham and active stimulation group allocation, respectively. Our image analyses found that erythema also occurs after sham and its distribution is homogenous below electrodes. Tingling frequency was higher using thin compared to thick sponges, whereas erythema was more intense under thick sponges.
Optimal investigator blinding is achieved when erythema after tDCS is mild. Erythema distribution under the electrode is patchy, occurs after sham tDCS and varies according to sponge thickness. We discuss methods to address skin erythema-related tDCS unblinding.

Full PDF: Erythema and tDCS



New Paper: Imaging tDCS current in MRI

Nature Scientific Reports

In-vivo Imaging of Magnetic Fields Induced by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Human Brain using MRI

Mayank V. Jog, Robert X. Smith, Kay Jann, Walter Dunn, Belen Lafon, Dennis Truong, Allan Wu, Lucas Parra, Marom Bikson & Danny J. J. Wang

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging non-invasive neuromodulation technique that applies mA currents at the scalp to modulate cortical excitability. Here, we present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, which detects magnetic elds induced by tDCS currents. This technique is based on Ampere’s law and exploits the linear relationship between direct current and induced magnetic elds. Following validation on a phantom with a known path of electric current and induced magnetic eld, the proposed MRI technique was applied to a human limb (to demonstrate in- vivo feasibility using simple biological tissue) and human heads (to demonstrate feasibility in standard tDCS applications). The results show that the proposed technique detects tDCS induced magnetic elds as small as a nanotesla at millimeter spatial resolution. Through measurements of magnetic elds linearly proportional to the applied tDCS current, our approach opens a new avenue for direct in-vivo visualization of tDCS target engagement.

Full PDF: srep34385



New Paper: Review of Animal Models of tDCS

Our new review is published:

Jackson MP, Rahman A, Lafon B, Kronberg G, Ling D, Parra LC, Bikson M, Animal Models of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Methods and Mechanisms, Clinical Neurophysiology, doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2016.08.016

Full PDF here: animalmodelstdcs_2016

Abstract:  The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of animal research using direct current stimulation (DCS) to our understanding of the physiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We comprehensively address experimental methodology in animal studies, broadly classified as: 1) transcranial stimulation; 2) direct cortical stimulation in vivo and 3) in vitro models. In each case advantages and disadvantages for translational research are discussed including dose translation and the overarching “quasi-uniform” assumption, which underpins translational relevance in all animal models of tDCS. Terminology such as anode, cathode, inward current, outward current, current density, electric field, and uniform are defined. Though we put key animal experiments spanning decades in perspective, our goal is not simply an exhaustive cataloging of relevant animal studies, but rather to put them in context of ongoing efforts to improve tDCS. Cellular targets, including excitatory neuronal somas, dendrites, axons, interneurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells are considered. We emphasize neurons are always depolarized and hyperpolarized such that effects of DCS on neuronal excitability can only be evaluated within subcellular regions of the neuron. Findings from animal studies on the effects of DCS on plasticity (LTP/LTD) and network oscillations are reviewed extensively. Any endogenous phenomena dependent on membrane potential changes are, in theory, susceptible to modulation by DCS. The relevance of morphological changes (galvanotropy) to tDCS is also considered, as we suggest microscopic migration of axon terminals or dendritic spines may be relevant during tDCS. A majority of clinical studies using tDCS employ a simplistic dose strategy where excitability is singularly increased or decreased under the anode and cathode, respectively. We discuss how this strategy, itself based on classic animal studies, cannot account for the complexity of normal and pathological brain function, and how recent studies have already indicated more sophisticated approaches are necessary. One tDCS theory regarding “functional targeting” suggests the specificity of tDCS effects are possible by modulating ongoing function (plasticity). Use of animal models of disease are summarized including pain, movement disorders, stroke, and epilepsy


Parra, Dmochowski, and Bikson speak at NIH

Dr. Lucas Parra, Dr. Jacek Dmochowski, and Dr. Marom Bikson are speakers at the National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop on Transcranial Electrical Stimulation. Sept 29-30, 2016. Dr. Bikson is also a co-organizer of the event.

Full event details here  (watch it on WebX)

Synaptic Plasticity Mechanism Explains the Specificity of tDCS- Lucas Parra, PhD– Download Parra talk slides: talk-plasticity-september-2016

Computational Modeling-assisted Design of tDCS Protocols- Marom Bikson, PhD. — Download Bikson talk slides: nih_2016_bikson

Targeted Stimulation of Active Brain Sources Using Electromagnetic Reciprocity- Jacek Dmochowski, PhD



Two Chapters in tDCS for in Neuropsychiatric Disorders books

D.Q. Truong. D. Adair, M. Bikson. Computer-based models of tDCS of tACS in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Clinical Principles ed. M.Nitsche, C. Loo and A. Brunoni 2016 10.1007/978-3-319-33967-2_5 p.47-66 . PDF:computermodels_chapter

D. Ling, A. Rahman, M. Jackson M. Bikson Animal studies in the field of transcranial electric stimulation in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Clinical Principles M.Nitsche, C. Loo and A. Brunoni 2016 10.1007/978-3-319-33967-2_5 p.67-83 PDF: animalstudies_chapter



Dr. Bikson at SPR 2016 Meeting

Slide here: sp_2016_bikson

Dr. Marom Bikson to give special instruction at

Marriott City Center Hotel, Minneapolis, MN

Sept 23, 2016. 3:30 p.m to 5:00 p.m. Ballroom 1 (Lobby Level)

NeuroModulation BEST PRACTICES FOR TDCS: A Q&A SESSION Marom Bikson The City College of New York

Event Website

Processed with VSCOcam with f2 preset

Dr. Bikson speaks at Duke University

Marom Bikson speaks on Engineering Principles of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

at Duke University Event Details


12:00 pm – 1:00 pm
Westbrook 0012

Slides here: duke_2016-ilovepdf-compressed



New Paper: Ethics and Law in Off-label clinical use of tDCS

Bikson M,Paneri B, Giordano J. The off-label use, utility and potential value of tDCS in the clinical care of particular neuropsychiatric conditions. Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 1–5 doi:10.1093/jlb/lsw044

PDF: offlabel_tdcs_j-law-biosci-2016-bikson-etal



Dr. Bikson and Dr. Parra speak at 6th International Bain Stimulation

Dr. Marom Bikson and Dr. Lucas Parra both gave talks at the 6th International Brain Stimulation Conference in Gottingen, German on Sept 8, 2016

Dr. Bikson on “How tDCS polarizes the folder cortex.” Slide: foldexcortex_bikson2016_final

Dr. Parra on “Synaptic plasticity mechanisms explain specificity of direct current stimulation





Dr. Bikson quoted in IEEE Spectrum

Olympic Athletes Are Electrifying Their Brains, and You Can Too

If a brain-stimulation gadget catches on, expect controversy over “brain doping”

IEEE Spectrum, August 21, 2916 Link

New Paper: Safety of tDCS, update 2016

Safety of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Evidence Based Update 2016
Marom Bikson, Pnina Grossman, Chris Thomas, Adantchede Louis Zannou, Jimmy Jiang, Tatheer Adnan, Antonios P. Mourdoukoutas, Greg Kronberg, Dennis Truong, Paulo Boggio, André R. Brunoni, Leigh Charvet, Felipe Fregni, Brita Fritsch, Bernadette Gillick, Roy H. Hamilton, Benjamin M. Hampstead, Ryan Jankord, Adam Kirton, Helena Knotkova, David Liebetanz, Anli Liu, Colleen Loo, Michael A. Nitsche, Janine Reis, Jessica D. Richardson, Alexander Rotenberg, Peter E. Turkeltaub, Adam J. Woods
Brain Stimulation 2016, Vol. 9, Issue 5

Full PDF: Bikson_Safety_tDCS_2016

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A first? combining EEG and HD-tDCS [outside]

Actually, just a fun image as we pilot the new headgear.
HD tDCS and EEG outside. Soterix Medical and ANT neuro technology.



Farewell to Selin !

Since our lab is multidisciplinary, we have members from other fields than engineering. Selin Unal, is a medical student from Turkey that joined our lab for the summer and she is going to continue her research from Turkey remotely ! See you soon Selin !



Thesis Defence: Andy Huang

Thesis Defence: Andy Huang

Computational Modeling for Transcranial Direct Current
Stimulation, with Experimental Validation by Intracranial
Recordings from Human Subjects

Friday, August 12, 2016
9:00 AM
Center for Discovery and Innovation (CDI), Rm. 11352

Click on the link to download flyer Final Exam BME Dept Copy-Yu Huang



Non-Invasive Neuromodulation Technology and Regulation Meeting

The “Non-invasive neuromodulation technology and regulation meeting” is a national meeting covering topics on the commercialization and regulation of non-invasive neuromodulation technology intended for medical and wellness use. This intensive one-day event is in direct response to the proliferation of clinical trials, popular press coverage, and now consumer-directed devices. The meeting is focused on transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) but spans any investigational techniques or marketed technologies that apply electrical energy to the head. Ample time will be allowed for discussion with speakers.

Date: August 28, 2016
Location Center for Discovery and Innovation (CDI) Room Number – 4352

For more information visit the links below:
About this Meeting
Registration and Tickets

Neural Engineering Lab members can ask for free registraton code from Dr. Marom Bikson or Bhaskar Paneri


New publication: tDCS for Patients with Lateropulsion after Stroke

Center of Pressure Speed Changes with tDCS Versus GVS in Patients with Lateropulsion after Stroke

Brain Stimul. 2016 Jun 21. pii: S1935-861X(16)30190-5. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.06.053.

PDF: LettertoEdBrainStimJune2016




Dr. Bikson speaks at Mt Sinai, Oct 19th

Marom Bikson speak “Brain Stimulation” at Mount Sinai for the Brain Imaging Center symposium on October 19th

Details and Registration here 

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Dr. Belen’s Defense Party

Neural Engineering Lab Day


New Paper: tDCS modulates Pattern Seperation

Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates pattern separation

Neuroreport 2016 DOI: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000621

Full paper PDF: PatternSeperationtDCS_2016


Marcus Cappiello, Weizhen Xie, Alexander David, Marom Bikson and Weiwei Zhang

Abstract: Maintaining similar memories in a distinct and nonoverlapping manner, known as pattern separation, is an important mnemonic process. The medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, has been implicated in this crucial memory function. The present study thus examines whether it is possible to modulate pattern separation using bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the temporal lobes. Specifically, in this study, pattern separation was assessed using the Mnemonic Similarity Task following 15-min offline bilateral temporal lobe tDCS (left cathode and right anode or left anode and right cathode) or sham stimulation. In the Mnemonic Similarity Task, participants studied a series of sequentially presented visual objects. In the subsequent recognition memory test, participants viewed a series of sequentially presented objects that could be old images from study, novel foils, or lures that were visually similar to the studied images. Participants reported whether these images were exactly the same as, similar to, or different from the studied images. Following both active tDCS conditions, participants were less likely to identify lures as ‘similar’ compared with the sham condition, indicating a reduction in pattern separation resulting from temporal lobe tDCS. In contrast, no significant difference in overall accuracy was found for participants’ discrimination of old and new images. Together, these results suggest that temporal lobe tDCS can selectively modulate the pattern separation function without changing participants’ baseline recognition memory performance.

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Dr. Bikson speaks at NIH National Cancer Institute 6/13

Dr. Marom Bikson lectures at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Cancer Institute (NCI)

6/13/2016 NCI Shady Grove Campus Room TE406 9:30 AM

Medical Device Device for Innovative Cancer Therapies: Preclinical Evaluation, Clinical Trial Preparation, and a Prospective Clinical Trial of Intraoperative Real-Time Tissue Oxygenation Monitoring by Wireless Pulse Oximetry

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Bhaskar’s Surprise Birthday

20160607_161208 20160607_161200 20160607_161553


Congrats 2016 Neural Engineering MS and PhD graduates!!!

Gozde Unal MS in Biomedical Engineering 2016 (mentor Marom Bikson)

Asif Rahman PhD in Biomedical Engineering 2016 (mentor Marom Bikson)

IMG_3128 IMG_2176


New Paper: High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS)

Spatial and polarity precision of concentric high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS)

IOPScience: Physics in Medicine and Biology, Volume 61, Number 12, 4506-4521, 2016, Click here for full paper

Mahtab Alam, Dennis Q Truong, Niranjan Khadka and Marom Bikson


Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that applies low amplitude current via electrodes placed on the scalp. Rather than directly eliciting a neuronal response, tDCS is believed to modulate excitability—enhancing or suppressing neuronal activity in regions of the brain depending on the polarity of stimulation. The specificity of tDCS to any therapeutic application derives in part from how electrode configuration determines the brain regions that are stimulated. Conventional tDCS uses two relatively large pads (>25 cm2) whereas high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) uses arrays of smaller electrodes to enhance brain targeting. The 4  ×  1 concentric ring HD-tDCS (one center electrode surrounded by four returns) has been explored in application where focal targeting of cortex is desired. Here, we considered optimization of concentric ring HD-tDCS for targeting: the role of electrodes in the ring and the ring’s diameter. Finite element models predicted cortical electric field generated during tDCS. High resolution MRIs were segmented into seven tissue/material masks of varying conductivities. Computer aided design (CAD) model of electrodes, gel, and sponge pads were incorporated into the segmentation. Volume meshes were generated and the Laplace equation ($\nabla $  centerdot (σ $\nabla $  V)  =  0) was solved for cortical electric field, which was interpreted using physiological assumptions to correlate with stimulation and modulation. Cortical field intensity was predicted to increase with increasing ring diameter at the cost of focality while uni-directionality decreased. Additional surrounding ring electrodes increased uni-directionality while lowering cortical field intensity and increasing focality; though, this effect saturated and more than 4 surround electrode would not be justified. Using a range of concentric HD-tDCS montages, we showed that cortical region of influence can be controlled while balancing other design factors such as intensity at the target and uni-directionality. Furthermore, the evaluated concentric HD-tDCS approaches can provide categorical improvements in targeting compared to conventional tDCS. Hypothesis driven clinical trials, based on specific target engagement, would benefit by this more precise method of stimulation that could avoid potentially confounding brain regions.



New Paper: tDCS Remotely Supervised Home Delivery in MS

Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface doi: 10.1111/ner.12430

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Is Feasible for Remotely Supervised Home Delivery in Multiple Sclerosis

Read the full paper: ner12430

Margaret Kasschau; Jesse Reisner; Kathleen Sherman; Marom Bikson; Abhishek Datta; Leigh E. Charvet

Objectives: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has potential clinical application for symptomatic management in mul- tiple sclerosis (MS). Repeated sessions are necessary in order to adequately evaluate a therapeutic effect. However, it is not feasible for many individuals with MS to visit clinic for treatment on a daily basis, and clinic delivery is also associated with sub- stantial cost. We developed a research protocol to remotely supervise self- or proxy-administration for home delivery of tDCS using specially designed equipment and a telemedicine platform.

Materials and Methods: We targeted ten treatment sessions across two weeks. Twenty participants (n 5 20) diagnosed with MS (any subtype), ages 30 to 69 years with a range of disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale or EDSS scores of 1.0 to 8.0) were enrolled to test the feasibility of the remotely supervised protocol.

Results: Protocol adherence exceeded what has been observed in studies with clinic-based treatment delivery, with all but one participant (95%) completing at least eight of the ten sessions. Across a total of 192 supervised treatment sessions, no session required discontinuation and no adverse events were reported. The most common side effects were itching/tingling at the elec- trode site.

Conclusions: This remotely supervised tDCS protocol provides a method for safe and reliable delivery of tDCS for clinical studies in MS and expands patient access to tDCS.

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New Paper: HD-tDCS and Response Inhibition

Effects of High-Definition and Conventional tDCS on Response Inhibition

Brain Stimulation doi:10.1016/j.brs.2016.04.015.    Read the full PDF: HDtDCS_ResponseInhibition2016

J. Hogeveen , J. Grafman  , M. Aboseria , A. David , M. Bikson , K.K. Hauner

ABSTRACT Background: Response inhibition is a critical executive function, enabling the adaptive control of behavior in a changing environment. The inferior frontal cortex (IFC) is considered to be critical for response inhibition, leading researchers to develop transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) montages attempting to target the IFC and improve inhibitory performance. However, conventional tDCS montages produce diffuse current through the brain, making it difficult to establish causality between stimulation of any one given brain region and resulting behavioral changes. Recently, high-definition tDCS (HDtDCS) methods have been developed to target brain regions with increased focality relative to conventional tDCS. Objective: Remarkably few studies have utilized HD-tDCS to improve cognitive task performance, however, and no study has directly compared the behavioral effects of HD-tDCS to conventional tDCS. Methods: In the present study, participants received either HD-tDCS or conventional tDCS to the IFC during performance of a response inhibition task (stop-signal task, SST) or a control task (choice reaction time task, CRT). A third group of participants completed the same behavioral protocols, but received tDCS to a control site (mid-occipital cortex). Post-stimulation improvement in SST performance was analyzed as a function of tDCS group and the task performed during stimulation using both conventional and Bayesian parameter estimation analyses. Results: Bayesian estimation of the effects of HD- and conventional tDCS to IFC relative to control site stimulation demonstrated enhanced response inhibition for both conditions. No improvements were found after control task (CRT) training in any tDCS condition. Conclusion: Results support the use of both HD- and conventional tDCS to the IFC for improving response inhibition, providing empirical evidence that HD-tDCS can be used to facilitate performance on an executive function task.


New Paper: A simple method for EEG guided tES

A simple method for EEG guided transcranial electrical stimulation without models

Andrea Cancelli , Carlo Cottone , Franca Tecchio , Dennis Q Truong , Jacek Dmochowski and Marom Bikson

J. Neural Eng. 13 (2016) 036022

Full PDF: 2016 Cancelli A simple method

Abstract: Objective. There is longstanding interest in using EEG measurements to inform transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) but adoption is lacking because users need a simple and adaptable recipe. The conventional approach is to use anatomical head-models for both source localization (the EEG inverse problem) and current flow modeling (the tES forward model), but this approach is computationally demanding, requires an anatomical MRI, and strict assumptions about the target brain regions. We evaluate techniques whereby tES dose is derived from EEG without the need for an anatomical head model, target assumptions, difficult case-by-case conjecture, or many stimulation electrodes. Approach. We developed a simple two-step approach to EEG-guided tES that based on the topography of the EEG: (1) selects locations to be used for stimulation; (2) determines current applied to each electrode. Each step is performed based solely on the EEG with no need for head models or source localization. Cortical dipoles represent idealized brain targets. EEG-guided tES strategies are verified using a finite element method simulation of the EEG generated by a dipole, oriented either tangential or radial to the scalp surface, and then simulating the tES-generated electric field produced by each model-free technique. These model-free approaches are compared to a ‘gold standard’ numerically optimized dose of tES that assumes perfect understanding of the dipole location and head anatomy. We vary the number of electrodes from a few to over three hundred, with focality or intensity as optimization criterion. Main results. Model-free approaches evaluated include (1) voltage-to-voltage, (2) voltage-to-current; (3) Laplacian; and two Ad-Hoc techniques (4) dipole sink-to-sink; and (5) sink to concentric. Our results demonstrate that simple ad hoc approaches can achieve reasonable targeting for the case of a cortical dipole, remarkably with only 2–8 electrodes and no need for a model of the head. Significance. Our approach is verified directly only for a theoretically localized source, but may be potentially applied to an arbitrary EEG topography. For its simplicity and linearity, our recipe for model-free EEG guided tES lends itself to broad adoption and can be applied to static (tDCS), time-variant (e.g., tACS, tRNS, tPCS), or closed-loop tES.

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New Paper: Selective alteration of human value decisions by tDCS

Nature Scientific Reports  Full paper link  PDF: srep25160

Selective alteration of human value decisions with medial frontal tDCS is predicted by changes in attractor dynamics
D. Hämmerer, J. Bonaiuto, M. Klein-Flügge, M. Bikson & S. Bestmann
Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 25160 (2016)

Abstract:During value-based decision making, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is thought to support choices by tracking the expected gain from different outcomes via a competition-based process. Using a computational neurostimulation approach we asked how perturbing this region might alter this competition and resulting value decisions. We simulated a perturbation of neural dynamics in a biophysically informed model of decision-making through in silico depolarization at the level of neuronal ensembles. Simulated depolarization increased baseline firing rates of pyramidal neurons, which altered their susceptibility to background noise, and thereby increased choice stochasticity. These behavioural predictions were compared to choice behaviour in healthy participants performing similar value decisions during transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive brain stimulation technique. We placed the soma depolarizing electrode over medial frontal PFC. In line with model predictions, this intervention resulted in more random choices. By contrast, no such effect was observed when placing the depolarizing electrode over lateral PFC. Using a causal manipulation of ventromedial and lateral prefrontal function, these results provide support for competition-based choice dynamics in human vmPFC, and introduce computational neurostimulation as a mechanistic assay for neurostimulation studies of cognition.

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Our own Andoni Mourdoukoutas CCNY 2016 Valedictorian

Andoni has been working under the supervision of Dr. Marom Bikson for over 3 years. In that time he have published several papers, presented at national scientific meetings, and won several prestigious national awards including the Goldwater Scholarship (the 3rd fro the Bikson lab). Andoni: We are very proud of all you have accomplished and all you will!!! 

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Dr. Bikson quoted in Science

Dr. Marom Bikson quoted on his tDCS research in Science. Link

Cadaver study casts doubts on how zapping brain may boost mood, relieve pain. April 20, 2016.

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Bikson keynotes at 2016 Northeast Bioengineering Conference

Marom Bikson will provide a keynote talk at the 42nd Northeast Bioengineering Conference (NEBEC): at Binghamton University April 5-7, 2016

title: “Engineering the Brain with Non-invasive Electrical Stimulation: Applications in cognition and treatment.” 

Slides: NorthEastBioEngineering2016b.compressed

Abstract: The past decade have seen the emergence of technologies that apply weak electrical current through scalp electrodes to change brain function. These technologies have been tested to enhance cognitive performance in healthy individuals (such as mathematical  skills and memory) as well as treat neuro-psychiatric disease (such as depression and pain). On example includes transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).  This talk review the technical and scientific fundamental of tDCS to address the potentials and limitations of its applications in “engineering the brain.”

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New Paper: Prospects of tDCS for PTSD

Neuromodulation (S Taylor, Section Editor) Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reportspp 1-7

Current Status of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Posttraumatic Stress and Other Anxiety Disorders

Benjamin M. Hampstead , Emily M. Briceño, Nathan Mascaro, Andoni Mourdoukoutas, Marom Bikson


Full PDF: Hampstead_tDCS_PTSD_Status

Abstract: Several empirically supported treatments have been identified for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet a sizable number of patients are either unable to tolerate these approaches or remain symptomatic following treatment. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a well-tolerated method of modulating neuronal excitability that may hold promise as a novel intervention in PTSD and related disorders. The current review summarizes literature on the disrupted neural circuitry in PTSD and discusses the rationale for the commonly targeted prefrontal cortex (PFC) as it relates to PTSD. We then review the few prior (case) studies that have evaluated tDCS in patients with PTSD (1 study) and other anxiety disorders (4 studies). There was considerable variability in both the methods/justification for selecting the targeted brain region(s) and the tDCS montage used, which obscured any clear trends in the data. Finally, we describe the rationale for our ongoing study that specifically targets the lateral temporal cortex as a method of treating the symptoms of hyperarousal and re-experiencing in PTSD. Overall, it is clear that additional work is needed to establish dosing (e.g., intensity and duration of sessions, number of sessions) and optimal treatment targets as well as to identify synergistic effects with existing treatments.

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New paper: tDCS and Perception of Visual Vertical

Polarity-Dependent Misperception of Subjective Visual Vertical during and after Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

Taiza E. G. Santos-Pontelli 1*, Brunna P. Rimoli 1, Diandra B. Favoretto 1, Suleimy C. Mazin 1, Dennis Q. Truong 2, Joao P. Leite 1, Octavio M. Pontes-Neto 1, Suzanne R. Babyar 3, Michael Reding 3, Marom Bikson 2, Dylan J. Edwards 3

1 Department of Neuroscience and Behavioral Sciences, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil, 2 Neural Engineering Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York of the City University of New York, New York, New York, United States of America, 3 Non-invasive Brain Stimulation and Human Motor Control Laboratory, Burke Medical Research Institute, White Plains, New York, United States of America; Neurology Department, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York, United States of America

Abstract: Pathologic tilt of subjective visual vertical (SVV) frequently has adverse functional conse- quences for patients with stroke and vestibular disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the supramarginal gyrus can produce a transitory tilt on SVV in healthy subjects. However, the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on SVV has never been systematically studied. We investigated whether bilateral tDCS over the tempo- ral-parietal region could result in both online and offline SVV misperception in healthy sub- jects. In a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind crossover pilot study, thirteen healthy subjects performed tests of SVV before, during and after the tDCS applied over the tempo- ral-parietal region in three conditions used on different days: right anode/left cathode; right cathode/left anode; and sham. Subjects were blind to the tDCS conditions. Montage-spe- cific current flow patterns were investigated using computational models. SVV was signifi- cantly displaced towards the anode during both active stimulation conditions when compared to sham condition. Immediately after both active conditions, there were rebound effects. Longer lasting after-effects towards the anode occurred only in the right cathode/left anode condition. Current flow models predicted the stimulation of temporal-parietal regions under the electrodes and deep clusters in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. The present findings indicate that tDCS over the temporal-parietal region can significantly alter human SVV perception. This tDCS approach may be a potential clinical tool for the treat- ment of SVV misperception in neurological patients.

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Dr. Bikson Quoted in Washing Posted and in Medium

Medium Bright. “Can Small Doses of Electricity Make you Smarter” April 1, 2016 link

Washington Post. “Brain-zapping gadgets promise to make you a better you — smarter, stronger, even happier” March 29, 2016  link


See out Posters at CNS meeting in NYC April 2-5

Cognitive Neuroscience Society Conference website

Poster D134, Monday, April 4, 8:00 – 10:00 am, Americas Hall I (Posters 1-88), Americas Hall II (Posters 89-176)
Modulation of cortical activity using High Density Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
Devin Adair, Dennis Truong, Marom Bikson

F161, Tuesday, April 5, 8:00 – 10:00 am, Americas Hall I (Posters 1-88), Americas Hall II (Posters 89-176)

Contribution of Far Field Effects of Cortical tDCS in the Cerebellum to Learning in an Object Detection Paradigm
Aaron P. Jones, Michael C. Trumbo, Brian A. Coffman, Michael A. Hunter, Charles S. Robinson, Angela Combs, Kinsey Steuterman, Vickey Massey, Mohamed Aboseria, Alexander David, Marom Bikson, Vincent P. Clark;

Poster PDF: Aaron_Jones_CNS_2016_FINAL

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Dr. Bikson quoted in Life-Science and OZY

Brain Stimulation Could Speed Stroke Recovery

by Charles Q. Choi, Live Science  |   March 16, 2016
Read the article


BY  March 21, 12016

Read the article


Dr. Bikson gives keynote April 7 at North East Bioengineering Conference

Full conference details here

Dr. Bikson to speak on April 7th.

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Dr. Bikson gives keynote at UNM Neuroscience Day

The University New Mexico Neuroscience Day takes place on Thursday, March 17, 2016, at the UNM HSC Domenici Center. This collaborative event brings together researchers, clinicians, educators and community members to share the latest on brain research at UNM and to discuss care for brain and behavioral health conditions across the state. More information 

Dr. Marom Bikson will provide the Michael C Wilson Memorial Lecture on: How to get Smart And Even Cure Disease with tDCS

Full slides: ABQ2016_final2.MaromBikson_pptx.compressed

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tDCS and SPORTS PERFORMANCE study: Featured in Nature

Update: Our article on sport performance in athletics features in Nature. Link to news feature.

On The Lift_CM-1 copy

Complete oriignal paper: pubmed link  Full PDF: tDCS_autonomic_Paper

Br J Sports Med. 2013 Feb 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Brain stimulation modulates the autonomic nervous system, rating of perceived exertion and performance during maximal exercise.

Okano AH, Fontes EB, Montenegro RA, Farinatti PD, Cyrino ES, Li LM, Bikson M, Noakes TD.

BACKGROUND: The temporal and insular cortex (TC, IC) have been associated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) control and the awareness of emotional feelings from the body. Evidence shows that the ANS and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) regulate exercise performance. Non-invasive brain stimulation can modulate the cortical area directly beneath the electrode related to ANS and RPE, but it could also affect subcortical areas by connection within the cortico-cortical neural networks. This study evaluated the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the TC on the ANS, RPE and performance during a maximal dynamic exercise.

METHODS: Ten trained cyclists participated in this study (33±9 years; 171.5±5.8 cm; 72.8±9.5 kg; 10-11 training years). After 20-min of receiving either anodal tDCS applied over the left TC (T3) or sham stimulation, subjects completed a maximal incremental cycling exercise test. RPE, heart rate (HR) and R-R intervals (as a measure of ANS function) were recorded continuously throughout the tests. Peak power output (PPO) was recorded at the end of the tests.

RESULTS: With anodal tDCS, PPO improved by ∼4% (anodal tDCS: 313.2±29.9 vs 301.0±19.8 watts: sham tDCS; p=0.043), parasympathetic vagal withdrawal was delayed (anodal tDCS: 147.5±53.3 vs 125.0±35.4 watts: sham tDCS; p=0.041) and HR was reduced at submaximal workloads. RPE also increased more slowly during exercise following anodal tDCS application, but maximal RPE and HR values were not affected by cortical stimulation.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that non-invasive brain stimulation over the TC modulates the ANS activity and the sensory perception of effort and exercise performance, indicating that the brain plays a crucial role in the exercise performance regulation.

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New Paper: Targeting negative symptoms in schizophrenia with tDCS

Schizophr Res. 2015 Aug;166(1-3):362-3. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2015.05.029.

Targeting negative symptoms in schizophrenia: results from a proof-of-concept trial assessing prefrontal anodic tDCS protocol.

Kurimori M, Shiozawa P, Bikson M, Aboseria M, Cordeiro Q.

Full paper: kurimori2015  Pubmed link

“….In the present study anodic tDCS protocol was found to ameliorate negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The present results need to be taken as hypothesis-driven given the study design. Limitations to this study include its unblinded nature, small sample size, lack of a control group, and short length. Moreover, our results may be overestimated due to intrinsic characteristics such as the placebo effect and Hawthorne effect. However, the current “proof-of-concept” trial is aimed at evaluat- ing preliminary effects of a new experimental tDCS protocol. We under- stand that the trends seen in the completers shall strongly justify a larger double-blind study with better estimation of sample size.”

Paper on tDCS, brain metabolites, and fibromyalgia

Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Feb;67(2):576-81.

Excitatory and inhibitory brain metabolites as targets of motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation therapy and predictors of its efficacy in fibromyalgia.

Foerster BR, Nascimento TD, DeBoer M, Bender MA, Rice IC, Truong DQ, Bikson M, Clauw DJ, Zubieta JK, Harris RE, DaSilva AF.

Paper PDF: Foerster_et_al-2015-Arthritis_&_Rheumatology  Journal link here

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to improve pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM), a central pain syndrome whose underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study was undertaken to explore the neurochemical action of tDCS in the brain of patients with FM, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). METHODS: Twelve patients with FM underwent sham tDCS over the left motor cortex (anode placement) and contralateral supraorbital cortex (cathode placement) for 5 consecutive days, followed by a 7-day washout period and then active tDCS for 5 consecutive days. Clinical pain assessment and 1H-MRS testing were performed at baseline, the week following the sham tDCS trial, and the week following the active tDCS trial. RESULTS: Clinical pain scores decreased significantly between the baseline and active tDCS time points (P = 0.04). Levels of glutamate + glutamine (Glx) in the anterior cingulate were significantly lower at the post–active tDCS assessment compared with the post–sham tDCS assessment (P = 0.013), and the decrease in Glx levels in the thalami between these time points approached significance (P = 0.056). From baseline to the post–sham tDCS assessment, levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the posterior insula increased significantly (P = 0.015). There was a trend toward increased levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the anterior insula after active tDCS, compared with baseline (P = 0.064). Baseline anterior cingulate Glx levels correlated significantly with changes in pain score, both for the time period from baseline to sham tDCS (β1 = 1.31, P < 0.001) and for the time period from baseline to active tDCS (β1= 1.87, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that GABA, Glx, and NAA play an important role in the pathophysiology of FM and its modulation by tDCS.

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Pictures from Dr. Patrick Reilly’s Seminar


Dr. Bikson quoted in Nature

Dr. Marom Bikson is again quoted in a feature in Nature on Brain Stimulation:

Neurostimulation: Bright sparks

by Katherine Bourzac
Nature 531, S6–S8 (03 March 2016) doi:10.1038/531S6a
Published online 02 March 201

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IEEE Proceeding: tDCS, personalizing the neuromodulation

transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: personalizing the neuromodulation

A. Cancelli, C. Cottone, M. Parazzini, S. Fiocchi, D. Truong, M.Bikson, F.Tecchio, M. Parazzini, IEEE

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015 Aug;2015:234-7. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2015.7318343.

Full PDF: cancelli2015-2

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New Review: A technical guide to tDCS

A technical guide to tDCS, and related non-invasive brain stimulation tools

A. J. Woods, A. Antal, M. Bikson, P.S. Boggio, A.R. Brunoni, P. Celnik, L.G. Cohen, D. Fregni, C.S. Herrmann, E.S. Kappenman, H. Knotkova, D. Liebetanz, C. Miniussi, P.C. Miranda, W. Paulus, A. Priori, D. Reato, C. Stagg, N. Wenderoth, M.A. Nitsche.

Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;127(2):1031-48. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.11.012.

Full paper: A_technical_guide_to_tDCS_Woods_2016

Abstract: Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), including transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation (tDCS, tACS) are non-invasive brain stimulation techniques increasingly used for modulation of central nervous system excitability in humans. Here we address methodological issues required for tES application. This review covers technical aspects of tES, as well as applications like exploration of brain physiology, modelling approaches, tES in cognitive neurosciences, and interventional approaches. It aims to help the reader to appropriately design and conduct studies involving these brain stimulation techniques, understand limitations and avoid shortcomings, which might hamper the scientific rigor and potential applications in the clinical domain.



Special Neural Engineering Lectures: Patrick Reilly, Feb 29

Feb 29, 2016; 9:30 AM-2:35 PM (with lunch 12:00-1:00 PM)   Location CDI 2nd Floor Conference Room  direction to CDI  (access to building requires special key-card or contacting lab staff).

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Dr. J. Patrick Reilly, among the pioneers in electrical stimulation theory, will provide an detailed overview on theory and application. Topic covered include cellular modeling of electrical stimulation, waveform effects, electrical sensations and pain, Among many papers and books, Dr. Reilly is the author or Applied Bioelectricty and he may have a broader perspective on the development of electrical stimulation theory than anyone in the world. Dr. Reilly will provide a series of lecture from  9:30 AM to 2:45 PM (with lunch break) at the CDI.

Lecture schedule (and slides)

9:30  AM-  11:00 AM    CCNY-1 (Sensation & Pain)

11:00 AM – 12:00 PM   CCNY-2 (Waveform effects)

12:00 PM – 1:00 PM     Lunch

1:00   PM – 2:00 PM     CCNY-3 (ES Models)

2:00   PM – 2:45 PM     CCNY-4 (Combined models)

No RSVP needed. You can attend any portion of the presentation. Slides (three files) can be download here:

CCNY-1 Sensation MT 16-107.compressed CCNY-2 waveform MT 16-108   CCNY-3 ES model MT 16-109    CCNY-4 Combined MT 16-110.ppt



Marom Bikson to speak at TedX Bushwick 2016

Event website and details here

March 26th, 2016

TedX Bushwick 2016 team:


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Khashayar and Zeinab Birthday Pictures



media 2.1


media 2.2

Read the article here:

Jan 13, 2016 in The Hearty Soul online

“Electroceuticals are Going to Change the World.” Bikson believes they could change the world of medicine. With more research and study, they may just prove to be as effective (if not more) than drugs.


Special NE seminar: Malcolm Slaney-Understanding and using audio attention

Malcolm Slaney of the Machine Listening Group at Google Research will be discussing the topic of auditory attention. Malcolm is know for his work on automatic speech recognition and auditory perception, among many other things.

When: Friday, January 22nd, at 3pm

WhereASRC Auditorium

Important: please confirm your attendance by RSVP’ing to  RSVP will facilitate your entry into the ASRC building. Feel free to extend invites to relevant parties.

Title: Understanding and using audio attention

Abstract: Understanding auditory attention is key to many tasks. In this talk I would like to summarize several aspects of attention that we have used to better understand how humans use attention in our daily lives.  This work extends from top-down and bottom-up models of attention useful for solving the cocktail party problem, to the use of eye-gaze and face-pose information to better understand speech in human-machine and human-human-machine interactions, to new techniques that use EEG (and other brain signals) to infer the direction of auditory attention. The common thread throughout all this work is the use of implicit signals such as auditory saliency, face pose and eye gaze as part of a speech-processing system. I will show algorithms and results from speech recognition, speech understanding, addressee detection, and selecting the desired speech from a complicated auditory environment.  This talk will describe work that I did while at Microsoft Research, and efforts at the Telluride Neuromorphic Cognition Engineering Workshop that were partially supported by Google.

Biography: BSEE, MSEE, and Ph.D., Purdue University. Dr. Malcolm Slaney is a research scientist in the Machine Hearing Group at Google Research. He is a Consulting Professor at Stanford CCRMA, where he has led the Hearing Seminar for more than 20 years, and an Affiliate Faculty in the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Washington. He is a (former) Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Signal Processing and IEEE Multimedia Magazine. He has given successful tutorials at ICASSP 1996 and 2009 on “Applications of Psychoacoustics to Signal Processing,” on “Multimedia Information Retrieval” at SIGIR and ICASSP, and “Web-Scale Multimedia Data” at ACM Multimedia 2010. He is a coauthor, with A. C. Kak, of the IEEE book Principles of “Computerized Tomographic Imaging”. This book was republished by SIAM in their “Classics in Applied Mathematics” Series. He is coeditor, with Steven Greenberg, of the book “Computational Models of Auditory Function.” Before joining Microsoft Research, Dr. Slaney has worked at Bell Laboratory, Schlumberger Palo Alto Research, Apple Computer, Interval Research, IBM’s Almaden Research Center, Yahoo! Research, and Microsoft Research. For many years, he has lead the auditory group at the Telluride Neuromorphic (Cognition) Workshop. Dr. Slaney’s recent work is on understanding audio perception and decoding auditory attention from brain signals.  He is a Fellow of the IEEE.

Dr. Bikson presents to IEEE ICES

Dr. Marom Bikson presented to the IEEE ICES TC95 Subcommittee on “Engineering standards for tDCS”

Tuesday, 12 January 2016

Motorola Solutions, Inc., 8000 West Sunrise Blvd, Plantation, Florida 33322

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Dr. Bikson interview on “TechKnow” available

Watch it here: VIDEO
This episode of TechKnow (Original Air Date: September 27, 2014) explores the  applications of “hacking the brain.” For patients suffering from a variety of brain injuries and diseases—from depression to cerebral palsy—  there is a sure of interest in an technique called transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).  Dr. Marom Bikson it interviewed as an expert on tDCS technology and its use at home.  All features Soterix Medical technology used for neurorehabilitation.
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New Paper: Home Use of tDCS for Multiple Sclerosis

A Protocol for the Use of Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

 1,2, 1,2,  2,  1,2, 1,2,  3,  4, 1,2

1 Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center, Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 2 Department of Neurology, Stony Brook Medicine, 3 Soterix Medical, Inc, 4 Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York

Watch the video here

Soterix Medical Mini-CT device used here 

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Lab Pic: Happy Birthday Gozde and Dr. Bikson

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Special NE Seminar: José del R. Millán, Brain-Machine Interfaces: Dec 18

Neural Engineering Journal Club/Speaker Friday (Dec 18th) at 1 PM. Location is the new CCNY building, 3rd floor conference room Directions here

Brain-Machine Interfaces: The Perception-Action Closed Loop

Dr. José del R. Millán

Future neuroprosthetics will be tightly coupled with the user in such a way that the resulting system can replace and restore impaired upper limb functions because controlled by the same neural signals than their natural counterparts. However, robust and natural interaction of subjects with sophisticated prostheses over long periods of time remains a major challenge. To tackle this challenge we can get inspiration from natural motor control, where goal-directed behavior is dynamically modulated by perceptual feedback resulting from executed actions.

Current brain-computer interfaces (BCI) partly emulate human motor control as they decode cortical correlates of movement parameters –from onset of a movement to directions to instantaneous velocity– in order to generate the sequence of movements for the neuroprosthesis. A closer look, though, shows that motor control results from the combined activity of the cerebral cortex, subcortical areas and spinal cord. This hierarchical organization supports the hypothesis that complex behaviours can be controlled using the low-dimensional output of a BCI in conjunction with intelligent devices in charge to perform low-level commands.

A further component that will facilitate intuitive and natural control of motor neuroprosthetics is the incorporation of rich multimodal feedback and neural correlates of perceptual processes resulting from this feedback. As in natural motor control, these sources of information can dynamically modulate interaction.

Bio: José del R. Millán is the Defitech Professor at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) where he explores the use of brain signals for multimodal interaction and, in particular, the development of non-invasive brain-controlled robots and neuroprostheses. In this multidisciplinary research effort, Dr. Millán is bringing together his pioneering work on the two fields of brain-machine interfaces and adaptive intelligent robotics. He received his Ph.D. in computer science from the Univ. Politècnica de Catalunya (Barcelona, Spain) in 1992. His research on brain-machine interfaces was nominated finalist of the European Descartes Prize 2001 and he has been named Research Leader 2004 by the journal Scientific American for his work on brain-controlled robots. He is the recipient of the IEEE-SMC Nobert Wiener Award 2011 for his seminal and pioneering contributions to non-invasive brain-machine interfaces. Dr. Millán has coordinated a number of European projects on brain-machine interfaces.


Bikson speaks at North American Neuromodulation, Dec 11

UPDATE: Slides from talk Bikson_NAN2015final

Dr. Bikson to speak at the NANS 2015 meeting as part of a special session on NIBS.

Meeting details here  Meeting is Dec 10-13 in Las Vegas.

Dec 11: Non-Invasive Brain Neurostimulation Chair: Felipe Fregni
from biophysical foundations to clinical implementation of neurostimulation technologies Tim Wagner, PhD//Laura Dipietro, PhD
Using qEEG to guide non-invasive brain stimulation Leon Morales, MD
High-density transcranial direct current stimulation Marom Bikson, PhD
Using robotics and other therapies in combination with brain stimulation Dylan Edwards, PhD




Dec 4: Dr. Bikson joins Regulating Neutotechnoloogy panel at 2015 Dupont Summit

The 8th Annual Dupont Summit 2015 on Science Technology, and Environmental Policy
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11:00 AM, Friday, December 4, The Historic Whittemore House, Washington DC link
Marom Bikson, City College of New York & New York Center for Biomedical Engineering
Francis X. Shen, University of Minnesotta 
James Giordano, Pellegrino Center for Clinical Bioethics & Georgetown University
Download Dr. Bikson’s complete slides: MaromBikson_Dupont2015
Links to cited papers:
1. Fregni F, Bikson M. et al, Regulatory Considerations for the Clinical and Research Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): review and recommendations from an expert panel. Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs. DOI: 10.3109/10601333.2015.980944 PDF
2.  Rahman A, Bikson M. Origins of specificity during tDCS: anatomical, activity-selective, and input-bias mechanisms Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2013; doi 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00688 Link
3. Dmochowski JP, Datta A, Bikson M, Su Y, Parra LC. Optimized multi-electrode stimulation increases focality and intensity at target. Journal of Neural Engineering . 2011; 8(4)  PDF
4. Datta A, Bansal V, Diaz J, Patel J, Reato D, Bikson M. Gyri –precise head model of transcranial DC stimulation: Improved spatial focality using a ring electrode versus conventional rectangular pad.Brain Stimulation. 2009; 2(4):201-207 PDF


Dr. Bikson interviewed by Dr. Vince Walsh

Magstim Inside Interviews: 5 Minutes with leading researchers (Professor Marom Bikson)



Dr.Bikson quoted in New Scientist

Link Nov 18, 2015

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Marom Bikson, a biomedical engineer at the City College of New York, who studies electricity’s effect on the body, says there are some essential questions scientists must answer before tDCS becomes widespread: what brain region should be stimulated and at what strength; and is stimulation better before, during or after an activity? “We’re in the ‘baby aspirin’ stages of tDCS,” says Bikson. “We have a tremendous amount to learn about how to optimize it.”


New Paper: tSDCS

J Neurophysiol. 2015 Apr 1;113(7):2801-11. doi: 10.1152/jn.00784.2014. Epub 2015 Feb 11.
Transspinal direct current stimulation immediately modifies motor cortex sensorimotor maps.
Song W, Truong DQ, Bikson M, Martin JH.

Full PDF: SongBiksontsDCS_2015
Abstract: Motor cortex (MCX) motor representation reorganization occurs after injury, learning, and different long-term stimulation paradigms. The neuromodulatory approach of transspinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) has been used to promote evoked cortical motor responses. In the present study, we used cathodal tsDCS (c-tsDCS) of the rat cervical cord to determine if spinal cord activation can modify the MCX forelimb motor map. We used a finite-element method model based on coregistered high-resolution rat MRI and microcomputed tomography imaging data to predict spinal current density to target stimulation to the caudal cervical enlargement. We examined the effects of cathodal and anodal tsDCS on the H-reflex and c-tsDCS on responses evoked by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). To determine if cervical c-tsDCS also modified MCX somatic sensory processing, we examined sensory evoked potentials (SEPs) produced by wrist electrical stimulation and induced changes in ongoing activity. Cervical c-tsDCS enhanced the H-reflex, and anodal depressed the H-reflex. Using cathodal stimulation to examine cortical effects, we found that cervical c-tsDCS immediately modified the forelimb MCX motor map, with decreased thresholds and an expanded area. c-tsDCS also increased SEP amplitude in the MCX. The magnitude of changes produced by c-tsDCS were greater on the motor than sensory response. Cervical c-tsDCS more strongly enhanced forelimb than hindlimb motor representation and had no effect on vibrissal representation. The finite-element model indicated current density localized to caudal cervical segments, informing forelimb motor selectivity. Our results suggest that c-tsDCS augments spinal excitability in a spatially selective manner and may improve voluntary motor function through MCX representational plasticity.



Dr. Bikson to speak at NJIT on Nov 6

Friday, November 6, 2015. 11:30 AM at New Jersey Institute of Technology  link

Talk title: The engineering foundations of non-invasive brain stimulation with weak currents

Few modern investigational medical devices have generated the excitement and research activity associated with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). During tDCS low-intensity DC current is applied across the scalp to treat neuropsychiatric diseases (including pain, depression, TBI, PTSD, epilepsy, tinnitus, stroke rehabilitation) or enhance cognitive performancetraining efficacy (including accelerated learning and memory); moreover tDCS has been suggested to produce minimal side-effects (undesired cognitive changes). This broad use of tDCS itself begs the question: how is specificity of behavioral changes achieved? And more broadly: how does tDCS work at the cellular level. This presentation introduces the current state-of-the-art and in-development technologies of tDCS. The biophysical foundations of tDCS are outlined including MRI-derived computational models of current flow, simulations and animal studies of neuromodulation, and finally essential challenges for ongoing rational and optimized application of tDCS in clinical and cognitive enhancements applications.

ity associated with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). During tDCS low-intensity DC current is applied across the scalp to treat neuropsychiatric diseases (including pain, depression, TBI, PTSD, epilepsy, tinnitus, stroke rehabilitation) or enhance cognitive performancetraining efficacy (including accelerated learning and memory); moreover tDCS has been suggested to produce minimal side-effects (undesired cognitive changes). This broad use of tDCS itself begs the question: how is specificity of behavioral changes achieved? And more broadly: how does tDCS work at the cellular level. This presentation introduces the current state-of-the-art and in-development technologies of tDCS. The biophysical foundations of tDCS are outlined including MRI-derived computational models of current flow, simulations and animal studies of neuromodulation, and finally essential challenges for ongoing rational and optimized application of tDCS in clinical and cognitive enhancements applications.



Two new papers on Forward Modeling Methods

Both papers appear in a special issue of Progress in Brain Research.

Modeling sequence and quasi-uniform assumption in computational neurostimulation

Marom Bikson, Dennis Q. Truong, Antonios P. Mourdoukoutas, Mohamed Aboseria, Niranjan Khadka, Devin Adair, Asif Rahman

doi:10.1016/bs.pbr.2015.08.005 Journal Link  PDF: ModelingSequence2015

Abstract: Computational neurostimulation aims to develop mathematical constructs that link the application of neuromodulation with changes in behavior and cognition. This process is critical but daunting for technical challenges and scientific unknowns. The overarching goal of this review is to address how this complex task can be made tractable. We describe a framework of sequential modeling steps to achieve this: (1) current flow models, (2) cell polarization models, (3) network and information processing models, and (4) models of the neuroscientific correlates of behavior. Each step is explained with a specific emphasis on the assumptions underpinning underlying sequential implementation. We explain the further implementation of the quasi-uniform assumption to overcome technical limitations and unknowns. We specifically focus on examples in electrical stimulation, such as transcranial direct current stimulation. Our approach and conclusions are broadly applied to immediate and ongoing efforts to deploy computational neurostimulation.


Multilevel computational models for predicting the cellular effects of noninvasive brain stimulation

doi:10.1016/bs.pbr.2015.09.003  Journal Link  PDF: MultiLevelComputational

Asif Rahman, Belen Lafon, Marom Bikson,

Abstract: Since 2000, there has been rapid acceleration in the use of tDCS in both clinical and cognitive neuroscience research, encouraged by the simplicity of the technique (two electrodes and a battery powered stimulator) and the perception that tDCS protocols can be simply designed by placing the anode over the cortex to “excite,” and the cathode over cortex to “inhibit.” A specific and predictive understanding of tDCS needs experimental data to be placed into a quantitative framework. Biologically constrained computational models provide a useful framework within which to interpret results from empirical studies and generate novel, testable hypotheses. Although not without caveats, computational models provide a tool for exploring cognitive and brain processes, are amenable to quantitative analysis, and can inspire novel empirical work that might be difficult to intuit simply by examining experimental results. We approach modeling the effects of tDCS on neurons from multiple levels: modeling the electric field distribution, modeling single-compartment effects, and finally with multicompartment neuron models.

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SmarthHealth features Dr. Bikson

SmartHealth interviews Marom Bikson on Oct 21, 2015

Read the full interview here

“Which kind of diseases could be improved thanks to electrical stimulation of the brain?

Almost any brain disease can benefit in theory from electrical stimulation.  Electrical stimulation may not always be a cure, but it can enhance the effects of other therapies and increase quality of life.  Applications include depression, chronic pain, epilepsy, learning and attention disorders, and other neuro-psychiatric disorders.”

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Dr. Bikson interviewed on CBC Radio

The CURRNT October 13, 2015  listen here

Electrical brain stimulation moves from lab to home

Brain stimulation, a promising medical technology, is not not ready for consumers, according to neuroscientist Flavio Frohlich. He says there's just not enough information on long term effects.


Dr. Marom Bikson interviewed with other experts about home use of tDCS and other forms of neuromodulation such as Thync.



New Paper: High-Definition tDCS for Fibromyalgia Pain

UPDATE:  Study Features in National Pain Report  link

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Clinically effective treatment of fibromyalgia pain with HD-tDCS – Phase II open-label dose-optimization.

L.C. Saavedra, N. Gebodh, M. Bikson, C. Diaz, R. Brandao, L. Coutinho, R. Shani-Hershkovich, M. Weiss, I. Laufer, A. Reches, Z. Peremen, A. Geva, L.C. Parra, D. Truong, F. Fregni.

Journal of Pain. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2015.09.009 2015  Journal Link

****See also the poster from NYC Neuromodulation 2015 here: NYC poster

****See the video on the collaboration between Soterix Medical and Elminda to commercialize technology here

Paper Highlights
• HD-tDCS provides targeted, specific and tolerable sub-threshold brain stimulation
• We present an optimized protocol option for the treatment of fibromyalgia pain
• We report a clinically significant benefit of a 50% pain reduction in FM patients
• We estimate ∼15 HD-tDCS sessions to reach clinically meaningful outcomes

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An Overview on Using Simpleware to Simulate and 3D Print Organs

Computer Aided Design of the Body:
An Overview on Using Simpleware to Simulate and 3D Print Organs   Date: Friday, October 16, 2015
Venue: City College of New York, Steinman Hall Room 401, 160 Convent Ave, New York, NY 10031     [Directions]

Who should attend:
This one-day course is aimed at those interested in creating high-quality 3D printed models of human anatomy from 3D image data. It will provide an overview to the processing of medical imaging data for the creation of tissue simulations and 3D printing. We will demonstrate typical workflows in Simpleware software for going from 3D image data to STL files suitable for 3D printing, including the ability to visualise and segment complex anatomical data. This will cover the benefits of using image-based models, examples of the work being done at CCNY, and will include opportunities for hands-on demos.You will learn how to:

You will learn how to: 
  Visualise and process image data from a wide range of 3D imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, CT, micro-CT)
  Create and manipulate computer representations of different parts of the human anatomy
  Import and position medical device designs within image data
  Generate image and video files for presentations and demonstration
  Export to 3D printing equipment
  Export for the purpose of computer simulation using finite element methods



  1. Neuromodec
  2. Bhaskar Paneri
  3. Marom Bikson PhD
  4. Gozde Unal


Registration Today:
$50 ($25 Students)


Dr. Bikson to speak at UCLA On Dec 10, 2015

UCLA Brain Mapping Center 
December 10, 2015 1:00pm – 2:00pm
Neuroscience Research Building (NRB 132) 635 Charles Young Dr. South
“How does tDCS work for so many things?” Marom Bikson

Few neuroscience technologies have generated as much recent interest and debate as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is explored for a remarkably wide range of behavioral interventions to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders, to accelerate rehabilitation after injury, and to enhance learning in healthy subjects. This talk reviews the technical and mechanism fundamentals of tDCS with the goal of explaining how specificity of action can be achieved. Specifically, how can tDCS be optimized and customized to produce specific changes in brain function. Data from computational models, animal testing, and clinical trials of tDCS is reviewed. New technologies such as High-Definition tDCS and EEG-tDCS coupling will be discussed.



New Paper: Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex Using High-Definition Electrodes

A Feasibility Study of Bilateral Anodal Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex Using High-Definition Electrodes in Healthy Participants

J. Xu, S.M. Healy, D.Q. Truong, A. Datta, M. Bikson, M.N. Potenza.

Abstract: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS†) studies often use one anode to increase cortical excitability in one hemisphere. However, mental processes may involve cortical regions in both hemispheres. This study’s aim was to assess the safety and possible effects on affect and working memory of tDCS using two anodes for bifrontal stimulation. A group of healthy subjects participated in two bifrontal tDCS sessions on two different days, one for real and the other for sham stimulation. They performed a working memory task and reported their affect immediately before and after each tDCS session. Relative to sham, real bifrontal stimulation did not induce significant adverse effects, reduced decrement in vigor-activity during the study session, and did not improve working memory. These preliminary findings suggest that bifrontal anodal stimulation is feasible and safe and may reduce task-related fatigue in healthy participants. Its effects on neuropsychiatric patients deserve further study.

Full PDFXu_HDtDCS_2015.compressed

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Updates in tDCS Clinical Trials: November 14, 2015

An intensive one-day event with national and international leaders in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) clinical research. The “Updates in tDCS Clinical Trials” mini-symposium will cover recent updates and results in tDCS clinical trials spanning applications in neurology, psychiatry, and rehabilitation. This course is intended for clinicians, researchers, and students employing tDCS.  Lecturers will cover emerging techniques, novel developments, and anticipated outcomes for various tDCS applications.  Ample time will be allowed for discussion with speakers.  Note that tDCS remain an investigational techniques and is not FDA approved for any indication.  The “Updates in tDCS Clinical Trials” mini-symposium is scheduled for the day after the NYC tDCS Fellowship.  Though the course focuses on practical aspects of tDCS, no hands-on training is provided. This is a lecture series only. These events are separately managed and require separate registration.

  • Regular Admissions: $150
  • Student Admissions: $100.


Dr. Bikson to speak at VII Neuromodulation Symposium (Brazil)

VII International Neuromodulation Symposium in Sau Paulo Brazil

August 31 2015 to Sept 2 2015

Monday 08/31 – 15h20 to 16h10     “How does transcranial Direct Current Stimulation change cortical processing: Insights from animal models

PDF of slides: Brazil2015a2

Tuesday 09/01 – 11h40 to 12h30      “Update on the use of High-Definition tDCS in clinical neurophysiology and trials.”

PDF of slides (grey scale only): Brazil2_final



Niranjan presented a poster at the Military Health Research Symposium (MHSRS) 2015

Venue: Marriott Harbor Beach Resort, Ft. Lauderdale, FL

Date: Aug 17-Aug 20

Poster tile: Design of Wireless Intraoperative Pulse Oximeter (WiPOX) with REticulated Pressure-Sensitive Head

Poster ID: MHSRS-15-0839

PDF of Poster



Dr. Bikson speaks at Brain Stimulation and Imaging Meeting, Hawaii 2015

UPDATE: Watch the full talk here

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(download high resolution version of slide below)

Marom Bikson lectures on: Targeting transcranial Electrical Stimulation using EEG: The scalp space approach

At Hawaii Brain Stimulation and Imaging Meeting June 13, 2015

Full Slides: Bikson_HawaiiBrainStim2015



Update picture from meeting (left to right:) Mayank Jog, Patrick Britz, Michael Hunter, Michael Nitche, Marom Bikson, Vince Clark, Greg Lieberman




New Paper: Wireless Intra-Operative Pulse Oximeter (WiPOX 2)

Design of Wireless Intra-Operative Pulse Oximeter With Reticulated Pressure-Sensitive Head

Selected as top 10 contributed papers that describe medical devices with commercial potential, Click here for more details.

J. Med. Devices 9(3), 030934, Click here to access full paper

Chris Sarantos, Jeremy Bekritsky, Niranjan Khadka, Marom Bikson, Prasad Adusumilli

We developed and validated a first-generation compact handheld device for real-time wireless monitoring of tissue oxygen-saturation during surgical procedures termed wireless intraoperative pulse oximetry (WiPOX). The WiPOX provides a surgical tool for surgeons to objectively and reliably measure tissue viability during surgery rather than rely solely on their subjective visual inspection. Tissue ischemia is a major cause of wound dehiscence or anastomotic leakage resulting in significant morbidity and mortality occurring at a rate of 15 to 25%. Although measurement of systemic blood oxygenation status by finger-tip pulse oximetry is a mandatory procedure for every anesthetized patient, there is no standard procedure for intra-operative measurement of internal tissue oxygenation following complex resection and reconstruction surgery. Potential use-cases of WiPOX include over 300,000 intestinal resection surgeries performed yearly in the United States alone, as well as plastic and bariatric surgeries where tissue flap perfusion is critical. Based on Clinical experience gained from our clinical trial with the first generation WiPOX, we designed a second generation WiPOX that include self- correcting reticulated head to improve contact angle between the sensor head and tissue, and pressure sensitive balloon sensors that provides feedback on tissue contact pressure and contact angle.



New Paper: Design of major tDCS Depression Trial (ELECT)

The Escitalopram versus Electric Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical Study (ELECT-TDCS): rationale and study design of a non-inferiority, triple-arm, placebo-controlled clinical trial

Full Design Paper Download: ELECT_TDCSdesign_SMI_2015 2

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric condition, mostly treated with antidepressant drugs, which are limited due to refractoriness and adverse effects. We describe the study rationale and design of ELECT-TDCS (Escitalopram versus Electric Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical Study), which is investigating a non-pharmacological treatment known as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

DESIGN AND SETTING: Phase-III, randomized, non-inferiority, triple-arm, placebo-controlled study, ongoing in São Paulo, Brazil.

METHODS: ELECT-TDCS compares the efficacy of active tDCS/placebo pill, sham tDCS/escitalopram 20 mg/day and sham tDCS/placebo pill, for ten weeks, randomizing 240 patients in a 3:3:2 ratio, respectively. Our primary aim is to show that tDCS is not inferior to escitalopram with a non-inferiority margin of at least 50% of the escitalopram effect, in relation to placebo. As secondary aims, we investigate several biomarkers such as genetic polymorphisms, neurotrophin serum markers, motor cortical excitability, heart rate variability and neuroimaging.

RESULTS: Proving that tDCS is similarly effective to antidepressants would have a tremendous impact on clinical psychiatry, since tDCS is virtually devoid of adverse effects. Its ease of use, portability and low price are further compelling characteristics for its use in primary and secondary healthcare. Multimodal investigation of biomarkers will also contribute towards understanding the antidepressant mechanisms of action of tDCS.

CONCLUSION: Our results have the potential to introduce a novel technique to the therapeutic arsenal of treatments for depression.







New Paper: Models of tDCS and HD-tDCS for Migraine

Front. Neuroanat., 15 July 2015  Free Online or Download PDF: HD_tDCS_migraine

State-of-art neuroanatomical target analysis of high-definition and conventional tDCS montages used for migraine and pain control

Summary: Although transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies promise to modulate cortical regions associated with pain, the electric current produced usually spreads beyond the area of the electrodes’ placement. Using a forward-model analysis, this study compared the neuroanatomic location and strength of the predicted electric current peaks, at cortical and subcortical levels, induced by conventional and High-Definition-tDCS (HD-tDCS) montages developed for migraine and other chronic pain disorders. The electrodes were positioned in accordance with the 10–20 or 10–10 electroencephalogram (EEG) landmarks: motor cortex-supraorbital (M1-SO, anode and cathode over C3 and Fp2, respectively), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) bilateral (DLPFC, anode over F3, cathode over F4), vertex-occipital cortex (anode over Cz and cathode over Oz), HD-tDCS 4 × 1 (one anode on C3, and four cathodes over Cz, F3, T7, and P3) and HD-tDCS 2 × 2 (two anodes over C3/C5 and two cathodes over FC3/FC5). M1-SO produced a large current flow in the PFC. Peaks of current flow also occurred in deeper brain structures, such as the cingulate cortex, insula, thalamus and brainstem. The same structures received significant amount of current with Cz-Oz and DLPFC tDCS. However, there were differences in the current flow to outer cortical regions. The visual cortex, cingulate and thalamus received the majority of the current flow with the Cz-Oz, while the anterior parts of the superior and middle frontal gyri displayed an intense amount of current with DLPFC montage. HD-tDCS montages enhanced the focality, producing peaks of current in subcortical areas at negligible levels. This study provides novel information regarding the neuroanatomical distribution and strength of the electric current using several tDCS montages applied for migraine and pain control. Such information may help clinicians and researchers in deciding the most appropriate tDCS montage to treat each pain disorder.

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New Paper: High-Definition tDCS for Tinnitus Relief

Intensity, Duration, and Location of High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Tinnitus Relief

Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair DOI: 10.1177/1545968315595286  Download Paper: tDCS_HdtCS_Neurorehabil Neural Repair-2015-Shekhawat-1545968315595286

Giriraj Singh Shekhawat, Frederick Sundram, Marom Bikson, Dennis Truong, Dirk De Ridder, Cathy M. Stinear, David Welch,  Grant D. Searchfield

Background and Objective. Tinnitus is the perception of a phantom sound. The aim of this study was to compare current intensity (center anode 1 mA and 2 mA), duration (10 minutes and 20 minutes), and location (left temporoparietal area [LTA] and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [DLPFC]) using 4 × 1 high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD- tDCS) for tinnitus reduction. Methods. Twenty-seven participants with chronic tinnitus (>2 years) and mean age of 53.5 years underwent 2 sessions of HD-tDCS of the LTA and DLPFC in a randomized order with a 1 week gap between site of stimulation. During each session, a combination of 4 different settings were used in increasing dose (1 mA, 10 minutes; 1 mA, 20 minutes; 2 mA, 10 minutes; and 2 mA, 20 minutes). The impact of different settings on tinnitus loudness and annoyance was documented. Results. Twenty-one participants (77.78%) reported a minimum of 1 point reduction on tinnitus loudness or annoyance scales. There were significant changes in loudness and annoyance for duration of stimulation, F(1, 26) = 10.08, P < .005, and current intensity, F(1, 26) = 14.24, P = .001. There was no interaction between the location, intensity, and duration of stimulation. Higher intensity (2 mA) and longer duration (20 minutes) of stimulation were more effective. Conclusions. A current intensity of 2 mA for 20-minute duration was the most effective setting used for tinnitus relief. The stimulation of the LTA and DLPFC were equally effective for suppressing tinnitus loudness and annoyance.

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Dr. Bikson speaks and moderates tDCS Air Force Planning Meeting

Marom Bikson speak and moderates at the DoD Air Force Planning meeting around tDCS.

Location: Lord Jeffery Inn, Amherst MA, Hosted by U Mass Amherst, July 7-8, 2015

Bikson slides: Amherst2015_Bikson


Dr. Bikson speaks at CAMH Toronto June 23

Dr. Marom Bikson lectures on

Design and optimization of tDCS for clinical trials: perspective from animal and computational studies

at The Center for Mental Addiction and Health, Toronto Canada. June 23, 2015 12 PM (101 Stokes Street, Room 1123)

Slides: Bikson_tDCS_CAMH_2015



Lab Pics. Happy Birthday Andoni



Dr. Bikson lectures at NYC TMS Fellowship

Full NYC TMS Fellowship Program Here

Fundamentals of electrical stimulation of the brain: Marom Bikson (CUNY-USA). Full slides (PDF) here NYC_TMS_2015_Marom_Bikson





Dr. Bikson on Wold Science Fair panel, May 28th in NYC

Screen Shot 2015-05-24 at 2.38.54 PMAbout the panel: Does electrical stimulation to the brain hold the key to better treatment for depression, stroke, and other neurological problems? Join us for an in-depth look at the use of TMS (magnetic) and tDCS (electrical) devices. We’ll hear from a psychiatrist and the depression patient he has treated with electric stimulation, as well as from neuroscientists who will discuss and demonstrate the use of these devices and what their research is telling them about the potential for treatment.  Sign up


The World Science Festival’s annual salon series offers in-depth conversations with leading scientists, extending the discussion of the Festival’s premier public programs to graduate students, postdocs, faculty, and well-informed members of the general public.

Download Dr. Marom Bikson’s slides:  WorldScience

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New Review of clinical tDCS for pain

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): What Pain Practitioners Need to Know

Non-invasive brain stimulation with tDCS is an emerging tool for adjunctive treatment of pain syndromes. Its long-lasting analgesic effects are probably caused by alterations of activity in cerebral pain-processing networks.


New paper: Review on tDCS for OCD

Transcranial direct current stimulation in obsessive–compulsive disorder: emerging clinical evidence and considerations for optimal montage of electrodes

Expert Rev. Med. Devices, 1–11 (2015)

Full PDF: tDCSforOCD

Natasha M Senco, Yu Huang, Giordano D’Urso, Lucas C Parra, Marom Bikson, Antonio Mantovani, Roseli G Shavitt, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Eurıpedes C Miguel and Andre R Brunoni

Background: Neuromodulation techniques for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) treatment have expanded with greater understanding of the brain circuits involved. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) might be a potential new treatment for OCD, although the optimal montage is unclear. Objective: To perform a systematic review on meta-analyses of repetitive transcranianal magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) trials for OCD, aiming to identify brain stimulation targets for future tDCS trials and to support the empirical evidence with computer head modeling analysis. Methods: Systematic reviews of rTMS and DBS trials on OCD in Pubmed/MEDLINE were searched. For the tDCS computational analysis, we employed head models with the goal of optimally targeting current delivery to structures of interest. Results: Only three references matched our eligibility criteria. We simulated four different electrodes montages and analyzed current direction and intensity. Conclusion: Although DBS, rTMS and tDCS are not directly comparable and our theoretical model, based on DBS and rTMS targets, needs empirical validation, we found that the tDCS montage with the cathode over the pre-supplementary motor area and extra-cephalic anode seems to activate most of the areas related to OCD.

Soterix Medical HDExplore used.

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Dr. Bikson lectures at 2015 Magstim Neuroscience Conference

Magstim Neuroscience Conference 2015

2015 Magstim Neuroscience Conference in the fields of TMS/tDCS and Neuronavigation. Featuring Internationally renowned Neuroscience guest speakers and the return of interactive “Masterclass Sessions”.

More info


Dr. Bikson speaks May 9th, 2:25 – 3:05pm:


Download slides: BiksonMagstim2015

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New Paper: Within Electrode Current Steering (WECS) for tDCS

Principles of Within Electrode Current Steering (WECS)

Journal of Medical Devices, Vol. 9 / 020947-1, 2015, Click here to access full paper

Niranjan Khadka, Dennis Q. Truong, Marom Bikson


Within Electrode Current Steering (WECS) is a novel method that enhances reliability and tolerability of tDCS. The underlying assumption of WECS is steering current within electrodes but without altering current distribution in brain target. Through an exemplary case example of a realistic electrode and head geometry (FEM), we demonstrated how current flow in the brain is independent of current steering at the electrode. Three current split cases (even, partially uneven, and fully uneven), keeping total current (1 mA) fixed within the electrodes are tested. At the electrode-assembly interface with the skin, the current density distribution varied only incrementally across conditions (e.g. less than would be expected with even minor changes in electrode assembly or skin properties. There was no difference in the predicted electric filed at the brain target under all three cases. Thus, with such electrode assembly design, current steering to any functional electrode would not significantly increase current density in the skin (enhance tolerability during tDCS).


Figure: FEM analysis of electrode assembly to validate the underlying assumption of within electrode current steering. (A) Represents a montage with electrode assembly. (B) “Even”, “Partially Uneven”, and “Fully Uneven” current injection model through metal rivets of an electrode assembly keeping total current constant. (C) Illustrates streamline current flow from each metal rivets under all three current injection conditions. (D) Current density observed at the scalp electrode interface. (E) Presents an electric field distribution found in the brain targer.

Lucas Parra lecture in NYC, May 8: “Brains on Video”

Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Colloquium

Friday, 10:00 AM – 11:30 AM, May 8, 2015

Room C415A, The Graduate Center, 365 5th Ave, New York, NY 10016

Lucas Parra, City College, CUNY

 “Brains on Video”

Abstract: Much of the research on human brain function studies the relationship between neural activity and specific events in the world (flashes, beeps, button pushes, and associated features such as contrast, frequency, reaction time, etc). We decided to abandon this conventional approach and look instead at responses of the brain to ongoing natural stimuli, and in particular, video. We found that when an audience watches video, their fast encephalographic brain responses are similar, however, only if the audience is paying attention! The effect is so strong that we can detect an audience’s attentional engagement in segments as short as 5 seconds. Indeed, similarity of encephalographic responses is predictive of a number of behaviors that presumably correlated with viewer’s attention, such as whether they continue watching a program, whether they ‘like’ certain ad segments, whether they decide to ‘tweet’ about it, and whether they remember the content weeks after they saw it. We believe that analyzing fast ongoing neural activity in response to natural stimuli has tremendous potential for basic inquiry into the functioning of the human brain, and has evident and important practical implications.


Cover of Frontiers special tDCS issue + paper on individual difference in tDCS

Special 200+ page issue of

The frontiers of clinical research on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in Neuropsychiatry

ready for FREE download here.  We our work on the cover.

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Includes our article

Inter-individual variation during transcranial direct current stimulation and normalization of dose using MRI-derived computational models

Available for individual download here


Dr. Bikson to speak at University College London: May 7

Institute of Movement Neuroscience (IMN) Series  website for full info

Update- Slides PDF download: UCL

Title: ‘How to cure any disease and get smart: An overview of tDCS mechanisms’

Location: Wolfson Lecture Theatre | National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery (link Map)

Queen Square | London | WC1N 3BG | United Kingdom

Open to: Academic | Student

Speaker information: Professor Marom Bikson, Dept of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, USA.

Host: Institute of Movement Neuroscience, Sven Bestmann.


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Niranjan Khadka gave a presentation at the Annual Biomedical Engineering Day and Award Ceremony on May 01, 2015

BME Day, May 01, 2015, Department of Biomedical Engineering, CCNY

Wireless Pulse Oximeter (WiPOX): Its Clinical Implications and Challenges

The WiPOX provides a tool for surgeons to objectively and reliably measure tissue viability during surgery rather than rely solely on their subjective visual inspection. Tissue ischemia is a major cause of wound dehiscence or anastomotic leakage resulting in significant morbidity and mortality occuring at a rate of 15 to 25%. Although measurement of systemic blood oxygenation status by finger-tip pulse oximetery is a mandatory requirement for every anesthetized patient, there is no standadrad procedure for intra-operative measurement of internal tissue oxygenation following complex resections and reconstructions.

Based on clinical experience gained in our trials, we present here the design of a second generation WiPOX that includes a reticulated pressure-sensitive head serving two related functions. First, the often-restricted and sensitive environment in which the device is employed constrains both the angle of approach and visibility, necessitating a self- correcting reticulated swiveling head that acts to improve the contact angle between the sensor head and the tissue. Second, because the devices is hand-held, the pressure on the tissue (often a membrane) is determined by the operator; too little pressure produces poor signal to noise ratio (SNR) while too much pressure can occlude blood flow, also reducing SNR and possibly yielding erroneously low oxygenation measurements. To address this, our sensor head includes a novel mounting for multiple “balloon” style pressure sensors that provide feedback on tissue contact pressure and contact angle. The reticulated head and pressure sensor features function in tandem to improve tissue contact and ensure
reliable measurements.

VENUE: Department of Biomedical Engineering, CCNY, ST 402


Dr. Bikson to speak in Barcelona, Spain April 29th

A Dialogue with the Cerebral Cortex: Cortical Function and Interfacing

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slides from Dr. Bikson talk: Dialogure2015_final.compressed
Conference Scope:
The understanding of brain function is a critical issue both for scientific reasons and for its clinical implications. Neurological and psychiatric diseases affect a sizeable amount of the population, a proportion that increases with age. The need to develop new and efficient tools to restore brain function that has been altered by disease requires a thorough understanding of brain physiology and its capability for plasticity. Recent developments in computation, imaging, molecular and optical tools, new materials and the means for brain interfacing open up possibilities for brain studies and interventions that were unthinkable just two decades ago.
B·Debate in collaboration with IDIBAPS (Biomedical Research Institute August Pi i Sunyer) and promoted by the European project CORTICONIC, present this workshop where leading experimental and theoretical neuroscientists, clinicians and neurotechnologists will debate the challenges and future perspectives of brain interfacing. It is our purpose to generate new ideas and foster collaborations as well as to discuss potential new paths for this exciting and growing field.
Dates: April, 29th and 30st, 2015
Venue: CaixaForum · Avinguda Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia, 6-8 · Barcelona
Time: from 9:15 to 18:00
Registration is open through this link


Dr. Bikson speaks at North American Meeting on Brain Stim

Marom Bikson, The City College of New York of CUNY, US

April 27th

Comparing the focality of TMS and HD-tDCS 

Slides: Bikson_TMSvTDCS_2015

Conference Program:  3rd NA TMS PROGRAM



CCNY on Fox 5 with High-School project on eye tracking


Harsh Baid, 17, of Bronx Science, wrote a piece of code that allows him to navigate the world of his favorite video game by moving his eyes.His project is enhancing gaming interfaces via gaze tracking. Baid approached Professor Lucas Parra, a professor of biomedical engineering at City College, to be his mentor.

Read more


Prof. Bikson lectured at Albert Einstein April 17

Marom Bikson gives two lectures at Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Yeshiva University)


Kennedy Building Room 901.  Map

2-3 PM Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: How can one thing work for everything?

3-4 PM  How electrotherapy devices work and why they fail to reach patients.




The 3rd Annual Minnesota Neuromodulation Symposium 2015

Niranjan Khadka presented a poster at the Minnesota Neuromodulation Symposium

Poster Title: Principles of Within Electrode Current Steering(WECS)


Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, CUNY, 160 Convent Ave, New York, 10031, USA

Within Electrode Current Steering (WECS), a novel method, applies to non-invasive electrical stimulation with two or more electrodes to enhance reliability and tolerability during tDCS. The underlying assumption of WECS is steering current within electrodes (to compensate for any non-ideal conditions at the surface), but without altering current distribution in the brain target. This technology leverages our technique for independently isolating electrode impedance and over-potential during multi-channel stimulation. Through an exemplary case example of a realistic electrodes (metal-rivets embedded in an electrolyte (saline or gel)) and head geometry (FEM), we demonstrated how current flow in brain is independent of current steering at the electrode. Three current split cases (even, partially uneven, and fully uneven), keeping total current (1 mA) fixed within the electrodes are tested. At the electrode-assembly interface with the skin, the current density distribution varied only incrementally across conditions (e.g. less than would be expected) with even minor changes in electrode assembly or skin properties. There was no difference in the predicted electric filed at the brain target under all three cases. Thus, with such electrode assembly design, current steering to any functional electrode would not significantly increase current density in the skin; hence, not effecting tolerability.

Date & time: April 17, 2015 11:30-1:00 pm

Venue: University of Minnesota, Twin City, Minnesota



Design of Medical Device Annual Conference 2015

Niranjan Khadka presented a poster at the DMD Conference.

Poster Title: Design of Wireless Intraoperative Pulse Oximeter with Reticulated Pressure Sensitive Head

Link: KhadkaBiksonWiPOX

In order to provide a surgical tool that objectively and reliably measure tissue viability during surgery, we developed and validated a first generation compact handheld device for real time wireless monitoring of SPO2. Through the application of pressure sensor (provide feedback of real-time contact conditions of the device), reticulated shaft (facilitate flat contact with the tissue surface that are less visible), and systemic pulse rate input to signal tissue oxygenation through signal processing, this invention will enable surgeons to make treatment decision and measure the efficacy of the therapeutic interventions in real-time.

Date & time: April 15, 2015 5:30 – 7:00

Venue: McNamara Alumni Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

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Niranjan Khadka gave a presentation in the Three-in-Five Competition- 2015 DMD Conference

Design of Medical Device Conference 2015, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

Design of Wireless Intraoperative Pulse Oximeter (WiPOX) with Reticulated Pressure-sensitive Head (DMD2015-8730), in addition to the poster presentation, has been chosen to compete in the Three-in-Five Competition. Moreover, the paper has also been accepted for publication in the Journal of Medical Devices.

The DMD Three-in-Five Competition is a way for researchers to get immediate feedback about their project from leaders in medical technology research, engineering & development. As an author of one of the top ten contributed papers that describe medical devices with commerical potential, Niranjan Khadka has been invited to give a presentation in front of a panel of leading medical technolgy innovators.

Full List of 2015 Presenters for the Competition can be found in the link below:

Project Description:

In order to provide a surgical tool that objectively and reliably measure tissue viability during surgery, we developed and validated a first generation compact handheld device for real time wireless monitoring of SPO2. Through the application of pressure sensor (provide feedback of real-time contact conditions of the device), reticulated shaft (facilitate flat contact with the tissue surface that are less visible), and systemic pulse rate input to signal tissue oxygenation through signal processing, this invention will enable surgeons to make treatment decision and measure the efficacy of the therapeutic interventions in real-time.



Figure: Design of the novel senor head with passive ball-and- socket reticulated head and four pressure sensing balloons supporting a jointly packaged optical emitter and detector.

Date: April 14 (Poster presentation) & April 15 (Three-in-Five Competition)

Time: 8:00-10:00

Venue:Meridian Ballrooms 2/3, The Commons Hotel, Minnesota, MN

New Editorial on meta-analysis in neuromodulation

On the use of meta-analysis in neuromodulatory non-invasive brain stimulation

Brain Stimulation 2015 DOI: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.03.008

Michael A. Nitsche, MD, Marom Bikson, PhD, Sven Bestmann, PhD

Full PDF (in press version): MetaAnalysisinNeuromod105

In humans, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) can modulate cortical excitability and activity. The buoyant use of this technique in basic and applied research requires further characterization of the basic mechanisms to divorce promising applications from those producing more heterogeneous outcomes. Here we outline some criteria and pitfalls for using published results to gain estimates about the effects of NIBS techniques through meta-analysis and related tools…..

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New Paper: The Pursuit of DLPFC

The Pursuit of DLPFC: Non-neuronavigated Methods to Target the Left Dorsolateral Pre-frontal Cortex With Symmetric Bicephalic Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

Brain Stimulation 2015  doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2015.01.401

PDF (in press version): Bikson_Seibt_PursuitDLPFC_inpress2015        PubMED link

Ole Seibt, Andre R. Brunoni, Yu Huang, Marom Bikson

Abstract:  The dose of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is defined by electrode montage and current, while the resulting brain current flow is more complex and varies across individuals. The left dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (lDLPFC) is a common target in neuropsychology and neuropsychiatry applications, with varied approaches used to experimentally position electrodes on subjects. Objective: To predict brain current flow intensity and distribution using conventional symmetrical bicephalic frontal 1  1 electrode montages to nominally target lDLPFC in forward modeling studies. Methods: Six high-resolution Finite Element Method (FEM) models were created from five subjects of varied head size and an MNI standard. Seven electrode positioning methods, nominally targeting lDLPFC, were investigated on each head model: the EEG 10-10 including F3-F4, F5-F6, F7-8, F9-F10, the Beam F3- System, the 5-5 cm-Rule and the developed OLE-System were evaluated as electrode positioning methods for 5  5 cm2 rectangular sponge-pad electrodes. Results: Each positioning approach resulted in distinct electrode positions on the scalp and variations in brain current flow. Variability was significant, but trends across montages and between subjects were identified. Factors enhancing electric field intensity and relative targeting in lDLPFC include increased inter-electrode distance and proximity to thinner skull structures. Conclusion: Brain current flow can be shaped, but not focused, across frontal cortex by tDCS montages, including intensity at lDLPFC. The OLE-system balances lDLPFC targeting and reduced electric field variability, along with clinical ease-of-use.

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Antonios Mourdoukoutas third Goldwater Scholar from Bikson lab

Full Press Release link

Antonios Mourdoukoutas, a junior majoring in biomedical engineering in the Grove School of Engineering and Macaulay Honors College at The City College of New York, has been awarded a Goldwater Scholarship for 2015.

Mourdoukoutas, who has a 3.91 GPA, is a member of Professor Marom Bikson’s lab at City College. The Long Island resident helps model methods of noninvasive brain stimulation using electrodes placed on the skin surface to correct neurological disorders or facilitate the recovery of lost motor functions.

Mourdoukoutas is the third Goldwater Scholar from Professor Marom Bikson’s lab.


New Paper: Neurostimulation in Older Adults Improves Working Memory

Longitudinal Neurostimulation in Older Adults Improves Working Memory

PLOS   Published: April 7, 2015                 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121904   FREE ONLINE
Abstract: An increasing concern affecting a growing aging population is working memory (WM) decline. Consequently, there is great interest in improving or stabilizing WM, which drives expanded use of brain training exercises. Such regimens generally result in temporary WM benefits to the trained tasks but minimal transfer of benefit to untrained tasks. Pairing training with neurostimulation may stabilize or improve WM performance by enhancing plasticity and strengthening WM-related cortical networks. We tested this possibility in healthy older adults. Participants received 10 sessions of sham (control) or active (anodal, 1.5 mA) tDCS to the right prefrontal, parietal, or prefrontal/parietal (alternating) cortices. After ten minutes of sham or active tDCS, participants performed verbal and visual WM training tasks. On the first, tenth, and follow-up sessions, participants performed transfer WM tasks including the spatial 2-back, Stroop, and digit span tasks. The results demonstrated that all groups benefited from WM training, as expected. However, at follow-up 1-month after training ended, only the participants in the active tDCS groups maintained significant improvement. Importantly, this pattern was observed for both trained and transfer tasks. These results demonstrate that tDCS-linked WM training can provide long-term benefits in maintaining cognitive training benefits and extending them to untrained tasks.
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Lab on PBS Newshour “How a gentle electrical jolt can focus a sluggish mind”


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Dr. Bikson to speak at 3rd North America TMS Montreal, April 27+28

Marom Bikson will speak on

Comparing the focality of TMS and HD-tDCS

More conference information here 

3rd North America Meeting on Brain Stimulation and Neuroimaging

The main goal is to discuss current and under development research protocols using brain stimulation to study cognition and behaviors in healthy and clinical populations.


CRIUGM – Amphitheatre LeGroupeMaurice 

4545, Queen-Mary Rd, Montreal


New Review Paper on Transcutaneous spinal stimulation

Journal of Neurorestoratology 2015:3 73–82

Transcutaneous spinal stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury: state of the art 

PDF: BiksonFregniSpinalStim2015

Treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI) still have limited effects. Electrical stimu- lation might facilitate plastic changes in affected spinal circuitries that may be beneficial in improving motor function and spasticity or SCI-related neuropathic pain. Based on available animal and clinical evidence, we critically reviewed the physiological basis and therapeutic action of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation in SCI. We analyzed the literature published on PubMed to date, looking for the role of three main noninvasive stimulation techniques in the recovery process of SCI and focusing mainly on transcutaneous spinal stimulation. This review discusses the main clinical applications, latest advances, and limitations of noninvasive electrical stimulation of the spinal cord. Although most recent research in this topic has focused on transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS), we also reviewed the technique of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) as potential methods to modulate spinal cord plasticity. We also developed a finite element method (FEM) model to predict current flow in the spinal cord when using different electrode montages. We identified gaps in our knowledge of noninvasive electrical stimulation in the modulation of spinal neuronal networks in patients with SCI. tsDCS, TENS, and NMES have a positive influence on the promotion of plasticity in SCI. Although there are no random- ized controlled studies of tsDCS in SCI, preliminary evidence is encouraging. FEMs predict that tsDCS electrode montage can be used to shape which spinal segments are modulated and what detailed areas of spinal anatomy can concentrate current density (eg, spinal roots). tsDCS is a technique that can influence conduction along ascending tracts in the spinal cord, so could modulate supraspinal activity. It may also be a promising new approach for a number of neu- ropsychiatric conditions.



Marom Bikson inducted to American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering

Marom Bikson To be Inducted into Medical and Biological Engineering Elite

WASHINGTON, D.C.— The American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE) has announced the pending induction of Marom Bikson, Ph.D., Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, City College of New York, to its College of Fellows. Dr. Bikson was nominated, reviewed, and elected by peers and members of the College of Fellows For outstanding contributions in the area of neuromodulation and the specific field of transcranial direct current stimulation of the brain.

The College of Fellows is comprised of the top two percent of medical and biological engineers in the country. The most accomplished and distinguished engineering and medical school chairs, research directors, professors, innovators, and successful entrepreneurs, comprise the College of Fellows.

AIMBE Fellows are regularly recognized for their contributions in teaching, research, and innovation. AIMBE Fellows have been awarded the Presidential Medal of Science and the Presidential Medal of Technology and Innovation and many also are members of the National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and the National Academy of Sciences.

A formal induction ceremony will be held during AIMBE’s 2015 Annual Meeting at the National Academy of Sciences Great Hall in Washington, DC on March 16, 2015. Dr. Bikson will be inducted along with 150 colleagues who make up the AIMBE College of Fellows Class of 2015. For more information about the AIMBE Annual Meet, please visit

AIMBE’s mission is to recognize excellence in, and advocate for, the fields of medical and biological engineering in order to advance society. Since 1991, AIMBE‘s College of Fellows has lead the way for technological growth and advancement in the fields of medical and biological engineering. Fellows have helped revolutionize medicine and related fields in order to enhance and extend the lives of people all over the world. They have also successfully advocated for public policies that have enabled researchers and business-makers to further the interests of engineers, teachers, scientists, clinical practitioners, and ultimately, patients.

Image. Dr. Marom Bikson with Dr. Gilda Barabino at the AIMBE induction ceremony at the National Academy of Science in Washington DC. Dr. Bikson is a new fellow for 2015.  Dr. Barabino is the CCNY Grove School of Engineering Dean and the rising president of AIMBE.

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Marom Bikson receiving honor:

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New Paper: Individual Electrode Resistance Measurement during tDCS

Methods for Specific Electrode Resistance Measurement During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

Brain Stimulation 8 (2015) 150-159, Click here to access full paper

Niranjan Khadka, Asif Rahman, Chris Sarantos, Dennis Q. Truong, Marom Bikson


Background: Monitoring of electrode resistance during tDCS is considered important for tolerability and safety. Conventional resistance measurement methods do not isolate individual electrode resistance and for HD-tDCS devices, cross talk across electrodes makes concurrent resistance monitoring unreliable. Objective: We propose a novel method to monitor individual electrode resistance during tDCS, using a super-position of direct current with a test-signal (low intensity and low frequency sinusoids with electrodeespecific frequencies) and a sentinel electrode (not used for DC).

Methods: We developed and solved lumped-parameter models of tDCS electrodes with or without a sentinel electrode to validate this methodology. Assumptions were tested and parameterized in partic- ipants using forearm stimulation combining tDCS (2 mA) and test-signals (38 and 76 mA pk-pk at 1 Hz, 10 Hz, & 100 Hz) and an in vitro test (creating electrode failure modes). DC and AC component voltages across the electrodes were compared and participants were asked to rate subjective pain.

Results: A sentinel electrode is required to isolate electrode resistance in a two-electrode tDCS system. Cross talk aggravated with electrode proximity and resistance mismatch in multi-electrode resistance tracking could be corrected using proposed approaches. Average voltage and pain scores were not significantly different across test current intensities and frequencies.

Conclusion: Using our developed method, a test signal can predict DC electrode resistance. Since unique test frequencies can be used at each tDCS electrode, specific electrode resistance can be resolved for any number of stimulating channels – a process made still more robust by the use of a sentinel electrode

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New Paper: Lasting modulation of in vitro oscillatory activity with weak direct current stimulation

J Neurophysiol 113: 1334–1341, 2015.  Full PDF: ReatoLastingEffectsoftDCS2

Lasting modulation of in vitro oscillatory activity with weak direct current stimulation

Davide Reato, Marom Bikson, Lucas C. Parra

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is emerging as a versatile tool to affect brain function. While the acute neurophysiological effects of stimulation are well under- stood, little is know about the long-term effects. One hypothesis is that stimulation modulates ongoing neural activity, which then translates into lasting effects via physiological plasticity. Here we used carba- chol-induced gamma oscillations in hippocampal rat slices to establish whether prolonged constant current stimulation has a lasting effect on endogenous neural activity. During 10 min of stimulation, the power and frequency of gamma oscillations, as well as multiunit activity, were modulated in a polarity specific manner. Remarkably, the effects on power and multiunit activity persisted for more than 10 min after stimulation terminated. Using a computational model we propose that altered synaptic efficacy in excitatory and inhibitory pathways could be the source of these lasting effects. Future experimental studies using this novel in vitro preparation may be able to confirm or refute the proposed hypothesis.

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Special NE speaker March 11: Amy Kuceyeski, Weill Cornell Medical College.

March 11, Wed.  3-4:15pm in T-402 at CCNY Steinman Hall

Dr. Amy Kuceyeski: “The (dys)-connectome: quantifying brain network influences in disease and recovery“

How the human brain successfully completes varied and complex tasks is still largely unknown. In the past, brain-behavior relationships were derived from single subject studies wherein a focal lesion was linked to a corresponding impairment in a one-to-one manner. Recently developed neuroimaging methods, however, have allowed an unprecedented investigation of the workings of the human brain in health and disease. Neuroimaging methods are now able to measure the in vivo structural or functional connectivity between different brain regions. Studies of brain networks in health (the connectome) and disease (the dys-connectome) have begun to shed light on the true nature of brain-behavior relationships, which in most cases is many-to-many. This talk will present some recent work on statistical modeling of connectome-behavior relationships in disease as well as some preliminary work in mathematical modeling of network-level brain plasticity in recovery from injury. It is imperative that we understand the brain and its connectome if we aim to restore proper function after disease or injury.

Dr. Amy Kuceyeski is an assistant professor of Mathematics and Neuroscience in the Radiology Department and the Brain and Mind Research Institute at Weill Cornell Medical College.


Dr. Bikson speaks (3x) at 1st International Conference on Brain Stimulation

Dr. Marom Bikson will give three talks and also serve as instructor on the Neuromodec tDCS workshop and on the Conference tDCS demonstration.

1st International Brain Stimulation Conference, Singapore

Titles and Slides (March 2, 2015):

Understanding the Cellular Targets of HD(tDCS) to optimize Brain Stimulation

12:30 PM  Slides PDF: EGI_Bikson_Singapore2015

Cellular Mechanisms of tDCS: Insights from Animal Models

1:30 PM Slides PDF: BiksonCellular_2015_Singapore

(Session Chair) How to Use Computational Models to Optimize Brain Stimulation

4:00 PM Sides PDF: HowToUseModelsforBrainStim_Bikson_Singapore2015


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Prof. Bikson in Popular Science (again)


Popular Science, Feb 15, 2015, link

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Dr. Bikson speaks at Sophie Davis on “Physics and neurophysiology make tDCS better”

“Physics and neurophysiology make tDCS better”

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging therapeutic technique under investigation for a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including stroke rehabilitation, addiction recovery, major depressive disorder, neuropathic pain, as well as other indications. There are encouraging results for some conditions, yet the efficacy of tDCS is mixed for others  and even for successful trials there is a need to further improve effectiveness. Moreover, it is unusual that a single approach would be effective and specific in such a diversity of application. This talk introduces the source of specificity and efficacy with tDCS, and outlines approaches to customize and optimize tDCS treatment for specific indications and individuals.  Based on computational modeling of current flow using MRI-derived models and on brain slice neurophysiology, work from the Bikson lab aims to enhance the efficacy and specify of tDCS by using physics (anatomical targeting) and electrophysiology (functional targeting).

Thursday, February 26th Harris Hall, Room 110 12:30-2:00 PM

Lunch will be provided



New Paper: Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) for Clinical Trials: Guidelines for Technology and Protocols

Front. Syst. Neurosci. | doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2015.00026
Free online here

The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is cumulative. Treatment protocols typically require multiple consecutive sessions spanning weeks or months. However, traveling to clinic for a tDCS session can present an obstacle to subjects and their caregivers. With modified devices and headgear, tDCS treatment can be administered remotely under clinical supervision, potentially enhancing recruitment, throughput, and convenience. Here we propose standards and protocols for clinical trials utilizing remotely-supervised tDCS with the goal of providing safe, reproducible and well-tolerated stimulation therapy outside of the clinic. The recommendations include: 1) training of staff in tDCS treatment and supervision, 2) assessment of the user’s capability to participate in tDCS remotely, 3) ongoing training procedures and materials including assessments of the user and/or caregiver, 4) simple and fail-safe electrode preparation techniques and tDCS headgear, 5) strict dose control for each session, 6) ongoing monitoring to quantify compliance (device preparation, electrode saturation/placement, stimulation protocol), with corresponding corrective steps as required, 7) monitoring for treatment-emergent adverse effects, 8) guidelines for discontinuation of a session and/or study participation including emergency failsafe procedures tailored to the treatment population’s level of need. These guidelines are intended to provide a minimal level of methodological rigor for clinical trials seeking to apply tDCS outside a specialized treatment center. We outline indication-specific applications (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Depression, Multiple Sclerosis, Palliative Care) following these recommendations that support a standardized framework for evaluating the tolerability and reproducibility of remote-supervised tDCS that, once established, will allow for translation of tDCS clinical trials to a greater size and range of patient populations.



Special NE speaker: Fernando Fernandez

Special Neural Engineering speaker:  Thursday 19th at 1PM in Steinman 402.

 Fernando Fernandez 

Modulation of neuronal output by membrane voltage fluctuations

Abstract: The membrane voltage of neurons in vivo is dominated by noisy “background” fluctuations generated by network-based synaptic activity from nearby cells. It has been speculated that membrane voltage fluctuations in neurons play an important role in scaling the relationship between input amplitude and spike rate response. For this to be true, neuronal spike input-output behavior must be sensitive to physiological membrane voltage fluctuations. Using a combination of single cell recordings and modeling, we investigated the mechanisms through which voltage fluctuations modulate neuronal input-output responses. We find that neurons that express an increase in membrane input resistance with depolarization show low levels of noise-mediated modulation of input-output responses due, in part, to  voltage trajectories that suppress the likelihood of generating a spike in response to random current input fluctuations. Hence, non-linear membrane properties arising from certain types of voltage-gated conductances limit noise-based modulation of neuronal input-output responses.


“The Stimulated Brain” Elsevier: two chapters from NE group

The Stimulated Brain, 1st Edition

Cognitive Enhancement Using Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

The Stimulated Brain, 1st Edition,Roi Cohen Kadosh,ISBN9780124047044

UPDATE Jan 2015:  Stimulated Brain wins PROSE Award. Honorable Mention.


Overview: The last decade has witnessed a significant increase in the amount of research exploring how noninvasive brain stimulation can not only modulate but also enhance cognition and brain functions. However, although Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and particularly Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) have the potential to become more widely applicable techniques, as they come with none of the risks associated with deep brain stimulation, the reference literature on these neurotechnologies has been sparse.

The Stimulated Brain presents the first integration of findings on brain stimulation—with a primary focus on tES, one of the most frequently used noninvasive stimulation methods—from different research fields. The work provides a broad survey of current knowledge, and also marks future directions in cognitive and neuro-enhancement. It expands our understanding of basic research findings from animals and humans, including clear translational benefits for applied research and the therapeutic use of noninvasive brain stimulation methods. The book coverage includes a primer that paves the way to a more advanced knowledge of tES and its physiological basis; current research findings on cognitive and neuro-enhancement in animals and typical and atypical human populations, such as neurological patients; and discussions of future directions, including specific neuroethical issues and pathways for collaboration and entrepreneurialism. The Stimulated Brain is the first book to provide a comprehensive understanding of different aspects of noninvasive brain stimulation that are critical for scientists, clinicians, and those who are interested in “stimulating their mind” by exploring this fascinating field of research.

Link to book

Our Chapters:

I. Moreno-Duarte, N. Gebodg, P. Schestatsky, B. Guleyupoglu, D. Reato, M. Bikson, F. Fregni. Transcrania Electrical Stimulation: transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS), transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation (tPCS), and Transcranial Random Noise Stimulaiton (tRNS) in The Stimulated Brain (Cohen Kadosh ed.) Elsevier Science – 2014, Chapter 2, p.35-60  doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-404704-4.00002-8  PDF: moreno-duarte2014

D. Truong, P. Minhas, A. Nair, M. Bikson. Computational modeling assisted design of optimized and individualized transcranial Direct Current Stimulation protocols in The Stimulated Brain (Cohen Kadosh ed.) Elsevier Science – 2014. Chapter 4, p.85-116. Full PDF: truong2014



CCNY Electoceutical “Mood” trial on NBC news

In Search of Serenity: I Strapped on a Mood-Changing Device

NBC link

“The company is careful not to release too many details about these “neural pathways.” But it has tested the device on more than 3,000 people, including 100 students and staff through a Thync-funded study at the City College of New York. The company says these trials show two-thirds of wearers feel a change in their mood beyond the placebo effect.”

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Special Seminar: Rosalyn Moran ” Translating Brain Connectivity in Health and Disease”

Thursday, Jan.29 @ 1PM in Steinman Hall Rm 402 

Rosalyn J Moran, PhD

Assistant Professor, VTC Research Institute
Assistant Professor, Bradley Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Medicine Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine
Virginia Tech

In this talk I will present Bayesian perspectives on the human brain, both as a methodology to assess brain activity and as an analogy of brain function more generally. In the first part of my talk, I will introduce Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) as a ‘mathematical microscope’ for assessing functional brain networks. Using noninvasive neuroimaging data, I will demonstrate how biologically motivated generative models can be deployed with approximate (variational) Bayesian inference techniques to infer upon the complex and latent neuronal architectures that subtend these observed time-series data. Using examples from pathological and pharmacologically-altered cortical circuits, I will show how DCM can also help elucidate the key parameters that contribute to abnormal brain function.

In the second part of my talk I will present a mathematical deconstruction of age-related changes in cortical processing motivated by the Free Energy Principle. This principle hypothesizes a simple optimization that the brain may perform and a potential implementation based on predictive coding. From this perspective, the brain itself represents a model of its environment and offers predictions about the world through a subset of cortical connections, while responding – through learning – to novel interactions and experiences. I will provide evidence for selective alterations in these predictive and updating processes over the lifespan and examine potential adaptive and maladaptive consequences. Overall, the talk will cover how the brain could ‘do inference’ on the environment, and how scientists can ‘do inference’ on the brain.


Our Poster in NYC Neuromodulation 2015: Current flow through the skin during Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES)

Download the poster through the link below:




new paper: Regulatory considerations for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS):

Regulatory considerations for the clinical and research use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): Review and recommendations from an expert panel

F. Fregni, M. A. Nitsche, C. K. Loo, A. R. Brunoni, P. Marangolo, J. Leite, S. Carvalho, N. Bolognini, W. Caumo, N. J. Paik, M. Simis, K. Ueda, H. Ekhtiari, P. Luu, D. M. Tucker, W. J. Tyler, J. Brunelin, A. Datta, C. H. Juan, G. Venkatasubramanian, P. S. Boggio, and M. Bikson

Clin Res Regul Aff, Early Online: 1–14 DOI: 10.3109/10601333.2015.980944 

Abstract : The field of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has experienced significant growth in the past 15 years. One of the tES techniques leading this increased interest is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Significant research efforts have been devoted to determining the clinical potential of tDCS in humans. Despite the promising results obtained with tDCS in basic and clinical neuroscience, further progress has been impeded by a lack of clarity on international regulatory pathways. Therefore, a group of research and clinician experts on tDCS were convened to review the research and clinical use of tDCS. This report reviews the regulatory status of tDCS and summarizes the results according to research, off-label, and compassionate use of tDCS in the following countries: Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Portugal, South Korea, Taiwan, and the US. Research use, off label treatment, and compassionate use of tDCS are employed in most of the countries reviewed in this study. It is critical that a global or local effort is organized to pursue definite evidence to either approve and regulate or restrict the use of tDCS in clinical practice on the basis of adequate randomized controlled treatment trials.

Paper PDF: tDCS_Regulations_stateoftheart


Seminar: Wednesday, Dec. 10@ 3PM: DBS Neurological Conditions Brian Kopell

Wednesday, Dec. 10@ 3PM in Steinman Hall Rm 402

DBS for Movement Disorders and other Neurological Conditions

Brian Kopell, Ph.D


 Abstract Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is widely recognized as the gold-standard treatment for patients with disabling motor symptoms from idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, Essential Tremor, and Dystonia that have become refractory to medical therapy. This neurosurgical procedure is available within a fully integrated multidisciplinary program through the Mount Sinai Hospital. Biography A graduate of the NYU School of Medicine, Dr. Kopell completed his residency at NYU Medical Center. Dr. Kopell has undergone fellowship training in Functional and Restorative Neurosurgery at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation and the University of Zurich. For the past eight years, he founded and has led the Restorative Neuroscience Program at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) where his team performed over 400 DBS cases for movement disorders. Furthermore, Dr. Kopell has participated and has been principal investigator in several clinical trials of emerging Neuromodulation technologies targeting such disorders as Parkinson’s disease, tremor, tinnitus, and Major Depression. Dr. Kopell has pioneered the use of intra-operative imaging during DBS cases to supplement the microelectrode recording typically done to make a procedure that is safer and quicker for patient


Marom Bikson to speak at American Epilepsy Society on Dec 6, 2014

Update:  Download slide Bikson_Slides_tDCS_Epilepsy_AES_2014c

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Neurostimulation and Neuroengineering (for Epilepsy): New Directions

Saturday, December 6, 2014 at 7:30 AM: Seattle Convention Center – Room 603, Level 6

Session Coordinators: Christopher DeGiorgio, M.D., Catherine Schevon, M.D., Ph.D., Steven J. Schiff, M.D., Ph.D.
Speakers: Marom Bikson, Ph.D., Robert Fisher, M.D., Ph.D., Selim Benbadis, M.D.
The SIG will focus on the following topics: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Epilepsy Seizure Detection Devices: Detection Strategies, Sensitivity, and Clinical Impact; Controversies in Neurostimulation 2014-2015: An Interactive Debate with Audience Participation. The topics will be followed by a period of interactive discussion.

Marom Bikson will speak on “Using tDCS to control epileptiform activity”

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Full conference program here


Special Issue of Brain Stimulation Journal edited by Dr. Bikson

!! Now out. here The special issue of Brain Stimulation (Volume 7, Issue 6) to coincide with the NYC Neuromodulation 2015 conference.  Articles focused on tDCS and tACS with special editorial by NYC Neuromodulation conference committee on the “Next Fifteen Years of transcranial Electrical Stimulation” Read out letter here

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Prof. Bikson to speak at Harvard Medical Neurorehabilitation Course. Dec 4

Update download slidesHarvardRehab_Bikson2014

Marom Bikson will instruct on Principles and Modeling of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Dec 4 at 2:30 PM at Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital

Full program details here

Harvard Course description: Current trends suggest that people are living longer, and furthermore, are living with a variety of sensory and/or motor impairments. Key to successful rehabilitation of these patients is to understand how the brain itself responds and adapts to injury. Despite the great differences across increasingly common conditions (such as Parkinson’s Disease, stroke, spinal cord injury, sensory impairment, chronic pain, and traumatic brain injury), the ability of the brain to change in response to insult, i.e. its “plasticity”, remains the crucial commonality that drives all neurorehabilitative approaches. This novel field of neurorehabilitation has rapidly developed over the last 10 years and the content discussed in the course will be useful for physiatrists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, psychiatrists and general practitioners working in the field of rehabilitation. This course gives an overview of current interventions (including FDA approved and state of the art research) aimed at improving cognitive, motor, and/or sensory function. Leading researchers in the field will give concise and informative lectures and offer time for students to ask questions of the faculty.


Asif Rahman: Second Exam for PhD on Dec 3

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Natalie Steinemann Second Exam: Dec 15, Neural Correlates of Perceptual Decision-Making

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More media coverage of our NEU-tES with Thync device

USA Today “Want to feel calm or energized? Thync has an app for that.” link  Dec 1, 2014

The Sunday Times “Hack My Brain: Plug in and charge your mood”


Sunday Times Magazine Nov 30 2014


Our poster on transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS) from SFN

Download PDF Spinal Stim Poster Mourdoukoutas

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Our Poster in SfN 2014 Annual Conference: Methods for Specific Electrode Resistance Measurement During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

Download the poster pdf here




Find us at the Society for Neuroscience 2014 Meeting

Please visit our poster presentations. Please stop by:

Presentation Session
Sat, Nov 15, 1:00 – 5:00 PM
84.02/NN3 – Transcranial direct current stimulation over ventro-medial prefrontal cortex changes human value-based decision making: A computational neurostimulation study
1Inst. of Cognitive Neurosci., United Kingdom; 2Lifespan Psychology, Germany;3WellcomeTrust,4UCL;5CUNY
084. Human Decision-Making: Perceptual Processes
Sat, Nov 15, 1:00 – 5:00 PM
Sun, Nov 16, 8:00 AM – 12:00 PM
187.09/TT58 – Finite element method (FEM) studies of spinal current flow in spinal stimulation
The City Col. of New York of the City Universit, New York, NY
187. Computation Tools
Sun, Nov 16, 8:00 AM – 12:00 PM
Sun, Nov 16, 8:00 AM – 12:00 PM
187.22/TT71 – Optimizing tDCS and HD-tDCS for clinical trials through computational models (and trial design)
1Biomed. Engin., City Col. of New York, CUNY, New York, NY; 2Biomed. Engin., City Col. of New York, New York, NY
187. Computation Tools
Sun, Nov 16, 8:00 A
Sun, Nov 16, 1:00 – 5:00 PM
214.08/C34 – Synaptic cooperativity and postsynaptic polarization jointly determine cortical plasticity during DC stimulation
Biomed. Engin., The City Col. of The City Univ. of New York, New York, NY
214. LTP: Pre- and Postsynaptic Mechanisms I
Sun, Nov 16, 1:00 – 5:00 PM
Mon, Nov 17, 1:00 – 5:00 PM
456.01/RR42 – Comparison of cognitive training vs transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on performance of a “Cyber Defense” multi-task
1George Mason Univ.A; 2Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH;3CUNY
456. Direct Current Stimulation
Mon, Nov 17, 1:00 – 5:00 PM
Mon, Nov 17, 1:00 – 5:00 PM
456.03/RR44 – Transcranial direct current stimulation differentially influences implicit and explicit memory in a multi-task
2Psychology, 1George Mason Univ; 3Airforce Res. Lab.;4CUNY
456. Direct Current Stimulation
Mon, Nov 17, 1:00 – 5:00 PM
Tue, Nov 18, 1:00 – 5:00 PM
599.06/D21 – Direct evidence of altered neuronal excitability due to electric field stimulation
City Col. of New York, New York, NY
599. Synaptic Transmission: Modulation III
Tue, Nov 18, 1:00 – 5:00 PM
Wed, Nov 19, 8:00 AM – 12:00 PM
731.04/LL7 – Methods for specific electrode impedance measurement during transcranial direct current stimulation
1CUNY 2UC Santa Barbara, CA
731. Neurorehabilitation
Wed, Nov 19, 8:00 AM – 12:00 PM


MIT Technology Review cover our study om “A smartphone-connected device that delivers electrical stimulation to the head.”

Device Changes Your Mood with a Zap to the Head
A smartphone-connected device delivers electrical stimulation to nerves in the head.

By Kevin Bullis on November 10, 2014

The market for products that relax or energize is worth billions of dollars worldwide….Next year you should be able to buy a small device that uses electricity to change your mood at the press of a button on your smartphone. The device, from a startup called Thync, currently consists of a set of electrodes connected to a phone. It has a short-lived energizing effect that feels a little like drinking a can of Red Bull….Marom Bikson, a professor of biomedical engineering at City College of New York, recently used a prototype of Thync’s device in a 100-person study (funded by the company) that focused on its calming effects. Bikson says the study showed “with a high degree of confidence” that the device has an effect, although the results varied. “For some people—not everyone—the effect is really profound,” he says. “Within minutes, they’re feeling significantly different in a way that is as powerful as anything else I could imagine short of a narcotic.

Full Article here

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Special NE Seminar at Graduate Center: Dr. Marangolo on Nov 25

TUESDAY November 25, 2014 from 4:30-5:45pm at the CUNY GRADUATE CENTER, 365 Fifth Avenue, ROOM 7300

 tDCS-Enhances Language Recovery: New Challenges in Aphasia Rehabilitation?

Paola Marangolo

Affiliation: Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy

 Abstract: New technologies has made new tools available for professional speech-language therapists. In the field of aphasia, one area is central for a positive outcome in language rehabilitation: the use of noninvasive brain stimulation techniques. A growing body of evidence has already indicated that TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation) and tDCS (transcranial direct current stimulation) can have beneficial effects in the treatment of aphasia. However, although some studies have shown an improvement of lexical deficits, a persistency of the effects has not been consistently reported. Moreover, many of these studies do not have a control condition to establish the specificity of the stimulated area. More recent studies suggest that long-term effects might be more easily obtained with repeated stimulations and during simultaneous specific language training. The development of these new approaches, as potentially promising tools for aphasia rehabilitation, will be discussed together with an overview of the language deficits most suitable for intervention.


Marangolo P & Caltagirone C. Options to enhance recovery from aphasia by means of non-invasive brain stimulation and action observation therapy. Expert Rev. Neurother., 2014

Marangolo P et al. Electrical stimulation over the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) determines long-term effects in the recovery of speech apraxia in three chronic aphasics. Behav Brain Res, 2011.

Marangolo P et al., Differential involvement of the left frontal and temporal regions in verb naming: a tDCS study. Restor Neurol and Neurosci, 2013


NYC Neuromodulation Conference and Workshop: Jan 2015

Registration is OPEN! as

NYC Neuromodulation Conference 2015 here

NYC tDCS Workshop 2015  here

Faculty Vacancy: Neural Engineering at CCNY

We are hiring:

Job Title: Assistant, Associate, or Full Professor – Biomedical Engineering (Tenure-track / Tenured)

Job ID: 11824
Location: City College of New York


The Department of Biomedical Engineering in the School of Engineering at the City College of New York (CCNY) of the City University of New York seeks to recruit an outstanding faculty member with expertise to complement their growing program in neural engineering. Other areas of specialization in the department include: tissue engineering, nanotechnology/biomaterials, cardiovascular engineering, and musculoskeletal biomechanics. It is expected that appointment will be made at the level of Assistant Professor, though outstanding candidates at more senior levels will be considered.

Responsibilities will focus on developing successful, extramurally funded research program as well as excellence in teaching at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

The City College of New York, in the heart of New York City, is building upon its strengths in neuroscience, which is currently comprised of more than 20 faculty from 5 different departments across the campus. Shared research instrumentation include state of the art microscopy, several EEG systems, TMS, tDCS, non-invasive optical imaging, and a research-dedicated MRI scanner scheduled to be operational by the end of 2014.

The research environment in the CCNY BME department is very strong, and builds upon internal strengths as will the New York Center for Biomedical Engineering (NYCBE) – a unique consortium between the Grove School of Engineering and seven of the premier health care and medical institutions in New York City. The research productivity of the faculty in the CCNY BME department is among the top in the nation and supported by over $5,000,000 annual in extramural grant support. The National Research Council rankings put the department in the top 10% in the nation terms of research productivity and #1 in the nation in terms of diversity. Its commitment to diversity is reflected in its unique composition of over 50% female or minority faculty. Additional information on the department can be found at CCNY is the founding and flagship college of the City University of New York (CUNY).

QUALIFICATIONS” Ph.D. degree in area(s) of experience or equivalent. Also required are the ability to teach successfully, demonstrated scholarship or achievement, and ability to cooperate with others for the good of the institution.

COMPENSATION :Commensurate with qualifications and experience.  CUNY offers faculty a competitive compensation and benefits package covering health insurance, pension and retirement benefits, paid parental leave, and savings programs. We also provide mentoring and support for research, scholarship, and publication as part of our commitment to ongoing faculty professional development.
HOW TO APPLY : Visit, access the employment page, log in or create a new user account, and search for this vacancy using the Job ID (11824) or Title. Select “Apply Now” and provide the requested information. Candidates should provide a CV, a cover letter, examples of recent publications, a brief statement of research and teaching interests, and the names and contact information for at least three professional references.
CLOSING DATE” Open until filled, with review of applications to begin December 1, 2014



Neural Engineering Seminar by Daniel Miklody. Oct 31

Daniel Miklody. Oct 31 at 2 pm on the 5th floor BME conference room.

Individualized head models through electrical impedance measurements

In EEG source localization,transcranial current stimulation (tCS) and other topics in neuroscience, a model of the volume conduction properties of the head is needed to estimate e.g. the sources of activity in EEG or the areas of stimulation for tCS.

To create a model, two approaches seem predominant: either an individual MRI is obtained out of which a model is created or an average head model is used. An MRI is expensive and the process to receive a head model very time consuming and labour intensive. Average head models are much cheaper but systematic errors occur through the individual differences in anatomy and conductivities. The anatomy can be morphed to fit the outer head shape as measured by localization devices. The results are acceptable but modeling errors still occur.

I am introducing a new approach to this topic, which involves Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to individualize the headmodel. Therefor small electric currents are injected through a standard set of EEG electrodes. The pattern of injection is alternating between injection pairs and the resulting scalp potential is measured on the rest. The measured data is then used to individualize an average head model involving non-linear optimization techniques from machine learning.

In my talk I will give a gentle introduction to different ways of modeling the head (concentric spheres, spherical harmonics, BEM and FEM), their advantages and drawbacks.

I will continue with an introduction to Electrical Impedance Tomography and different approaches within. I will also present the EIT device (virtually only) that I have designed an constructed within my Master’s thesis and some of the results.

Currently I am working on two algorithms for this problem in parallel: a leadfield based approach and a geometry based approach involving dimensionality reduction through PCA. I will introduce some basic concepts of those.

I will also present some preliminary results on 4-shell (scalp,skull,CSF,brain) BEM head modeling and the leadfield based approach.


New Paper: The outlook for non-invasive electrical brain stimulation

In anticipation of the upcoming NYCneuromodulation meeting (see NEUROMODEC for details). special editorial

The outlook for non-invasive electrical brain stimulation

Marom Bikson, Dylan Edwards, Emily Kappenman

PII: S1935-861X(14)00334-9     DOI: 10.1016/j.brs.2014.10.005

TEXT PDF: Bikson_OutlookForBrainStim_2015  Journal link

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Scientific American Mind Article by Marom Bikson and Peter Toshev

Nov 2014 issue of Scientific American Mind features article by Dr. Marom Bikson and Peter Toshev on the future of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

“Your electric pharmacy”  READ IT: samind_2014_11

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New Paper: Reducing transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-induced erythema

Guarienti, W. Caumo, P. Shiozawa, Q. Cordeiro, P.S. Boggio, I.M. Benseñor, P.A. Lotufo, M. Bikson, A.R. Brunoni.

Reducing transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-induced erythema with skin pretreatment: considerations for sham-controlled tDCS clinical trials.

Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface. 2014 In press. DOI: 10.1111/ner.12230

PDF: tDCScomfort_2014

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“Edison” Computational Cluster Installed

Through support from the DURIP mechanism of the DoD (PO Patrick Bradshaw, PI Marom Bikson). the Neural Engineering group is excited to activate our newest and most powerful cluster: Edison. Starting with 204 cores. 2.6 TB optimized for high-throughput and massive-scale finite element modeling of transcranial electrical stimulation.

Good job Andy Huang and Dennis Truong (pictured left) along with staff from DEH Microsystems.


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Special NE Seminar: Moritz Dannhauer

Moritz Dannhauer, Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, University of Utah

“Simulating noninvasive brain stimulation using SCIRun: an open source software package.”

Sept 26, 2014 at 2 PM. BME Conference room 402 – Steinman Hall


In my talk I will present how to setup, solve and analyze simulations of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques (tDCS, TMS) using SCIRun.

SCIRun is a generic tool to solve scientific problems that contains a software package called “BrainStimulator” in the new version SCIRun5.

I will explain goals, algorithms and implementation details regarding these simulations.

Watch this Sat: CCNY tDCS on TechNow Al Jazeera America

This Saturday. Sept 27, 2015 at 7:30 PM on Al Jazeera America. Includes interview with Prof. Marom Bikson and Dr. Abhishek Datta of Soterix Medical.

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New Paper: tDCS in Pediatric Stroke

Pediatric Stroke and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Methods for Rational Individualized Dose Optimization

Front. Hum. Neurosci. | doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00739

Free online

Background- Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been investigated mainly in adults and doses may not be appropriate in pediatric applications. In perinatal stroke where potential applications are promising, rational adaptation of dosage for children remains under investigation. Objective – Construct child-specific tDCS dosing parameters through case study within a perinatal stroke tDCS safety and feasibility trial. Methods- 10-year-old subject with a diagnosis of presumed perinatal ischemic stroke and hemiparesis was identified. T1 MRI scans used to derive computerized model for current flow and electrode positions. Workflow using modeling results and consideration of dosage in previous clinical trials was incorporated. Prior Ad hoc adult montages versus de novo optimized montages provided distinct risk benefit analysis. Approximating adult dose required consideration of changes in both peak brain current flow and distribution which further tradeoff between maximizing efficacy and adding safety factors. Electrode size, position, current intensity, compliance voltage, and duration were controlled independently in this process. Results- Brain electric fields modeled and compared to values previously predicted models. Approximating conservative brain current flow patterns and intensities used in previous adult trials for comparable indications, the optimal current intensity established was 0.7 mA for 10 minutes with a tDCS C3/C4 montage. Specifically 0.7 mA produced comparable peak brain current intensity of an average adult receiving 1.0 mA. Electrode size of 5×7 cm2 with 1.0 mA and low-voltage tDCS was employed to maximize tolerability. Safety and feasibility confirmed with subject tolerating the session well and no serious adverse events. Conclusion- Rational approaches to dose customization, with steps informed by computational modeling, may improve guidance for pediatric stroke tDCS trials.

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Marom Bikson to speak at VI International Symposium on Neuromodulation


Slides from Talk 2. Technical Requirement for Home-Use Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Bikson_Brazil_TalkA_Specificity BrazilTalk_B_final

Slides from Talk 1. State-of-the-art tDCS Protocols, Techniques, and Optimization (Getting “what we want” from neuromodulation) Bikson_Brazil_TalkA_Specificity

************  VI International Symposium on Neuromodulation ***************

22 to 27, August, 2014 – São Paulo – Brazil

Pre Course Program: PRE COURSES PROGRAM!

Program: VI International Symposium on Neuromodulation


New Paper: tDCS facilitates cognitive multi-task performance

Transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates cognitive multi-task performance differentially depending on anode location and subtask 

M.Scheldrup, P.M. Greenwood, R. McKendrick, J. Strohl, M. Bikson, M. Alam, R.A.McKinley, R. Parasuraman.

Front. Hum. Neurosci. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00665  Free ONLINE

Abstract: There is a need to facilitate acquisition of real world cognitive multi-tasks that require long periods of training (e.g., air traffic control, intelligence analysis, medicine). Non-invasive brain stimulation – specifically transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) – has promise as a method to speed multi-task training. We hypothesized that during acquisition of the complex multi-task Space Fortress, subtasks that require focused attention on ship control would benefit from tDCS aimed at the dorsal attention network while subtasks that require redirection of attention would benefit from tDCS aimed at the right hemisphere ventral attention network. We compared effects of 30 min prefrontal and parietal stimulation to right and left hemispheres on subtask performance during the first 45 min of training. The strongest effects both overall and for ship flying (control and velocity subtasks) were seen with a right parietal (C4 to left shoulder) montage, shown by modeling to induce an electric field that includes nodes in both dorsal and ventral attention networks. This is consistent with the re-orienting hypothesis that the ventral attention network is activated along with the dorsal attention network if a new, task-relevant event occurs while visuospatial attention is focused (Corbetta et al., 2008). No effects were seen with anodes over sites that stimulated only dorsal (C3) or only ventral (F10) attention networks. The speed subtask (update memory for symbols) benefited from an F9 anode over left prefrontal cortex. These results argue for development of tDCS as a training aid in real world settings where multi-tasking is critical.



media 1

Dr. Bikson quoted in NY Times and The Atlantic

Our labs work on neuromodulation recognized in several recent press articles including:

The Atlantic. Prepare to Be Shocked. August 13, 2014

New York Times. This Procedure May Improve Your Brain — and Uncover the Real You. July 17, 2014


Nature Communications: Brainwaves Can Predict Audience Reaction

Media and marketing experts have long sought a reliable method of forecasting responses from the general population to future products and messages. According to a study conducted at the Neural Engineering group The City College of New York, it appears that the brain responses of just a few individuals are a remarkably strong predictor.

By analyzing the brainwaves of 16 individuals as they watched mainstream television content, researchers led by Prof. Lucas Parra were able to accurately predict the preferences of large TV audiences, up to 90 % in the case of Super Bowl commercials. The findings appear in a paper entitled, “Audience Preferences Are Predicted by Temporal Reliability of Neural Processing,” published July 29, 2014, in “Nature Communications.”

Ready Full CCNY Press Release Here

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Cover of Brain Stimulation Journal features BONSAI

Current issue of Brain Stimulation features our modeling tool-box BONSAI on the cover. (and Marom Bikson’s head)

Use the toolbox here

Article on BONSAI and SPHERES here

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New Paper: tDCS activates same networks as placebo in pain treatment

Building up Analgesia in Humans via the Endogenous μ-Opioid System by Combining Placebo and Active tDCS: A Preliminary Report.

DosSantos MF, Martikainen LK, Nascimento TD, Love TM, DeBoer MD, Schambra HM, Bikson M, Zubieta J, DaSilva AF.  PLOS ONE 2014; 9(7) e102350 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102350

Free Online

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New Paper: New approach for HD-tDCS – benzocaine pre-treatment

Front. Neuroeng., 11 July 2014 | doi: 10.3389/fneng.2014.00028

Reduced discomfort during high-definition transcutaneous stimulation using 6% benzocaine

Berkan Guleyupoglu, Nicole Febles, Preet Minhas, Christoph Hahn, and Marom Bikson

PDF: Guleyupoglu_Bikson_2014  Journal Link

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New Paper: Sham Protocols for tDCS

Title: Toward Development of Sham Protocols for High- Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) 

Jessica D. Richardson, Paul Fillmore, Abhishek Datta, Dennis Truong, Marom Bikson, Julius Fridriksson

NeuroRegulation Vol. 1(1):62-72 2014 doi:10.15540/nr.2014.1.1.62

PDF: Download

Abstract : High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) is a noninvasive cortical
stimulation (NICS) technique that, due to the utilization of multi-electrode stimulation, may
enable development of sham conditions characterized by indistinguishable scalp sensations
compared to active conditions, with little or no cortical influence. We sought to contribute to
the development of an optimal sham electrode configuration for HD-tDCS protocols by
gathering ratings of overall sensation reported by participants during different electrode
configurations and current intensities. Twenty healthy participants completed a magnitude
estimation task during which they rated their “overall sensation” in 1-minute intervals during
five 5-minute stimulation conditions. A 5 x 5 (Time x Stimulation condition) analysis of
variance (ANOVA) was conducted to determine if sensation measurements differed over
time, and how this varied by condition. Null hypothesis significance tests and equivalence
tests were conducted to determine which sham conditions were statistically indistinguishable
from the experimental condition. The ANOVA revealed main effects for Time and Stimulation
condition. Planned comparisons, comparing each sham condition to the experimental
condition (4×1 ring configuration, 2 mA), revealed differences in sensation ratings for all but
one condition (Sham 1x1A); no sham conditions were found to be statistically equivalent to
the experimental condition. Our HD-tDCS findings build upon previous NICS reports of
differences in sensation ratings between sham versus experimental conditions when
traditional “ramping down” approaches were used. Alternative multi-electrode configurations
that manipulate electrode placement to shunt current across the scalp warrant further
investigation as valid blinding methods.

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FENS Poster: Lasting effects of direct current stimulation on gamma oscillations in-vitro

download the full poster here: lDfuf70WipWG37Pm0aboyG5Tt1Rm0KgkKcWLtn56r2X7o9ejr3VixltDpfbElR2g

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Video: Unique Engineering Education at The City College of New York – features Neural Engineering

Unique Education at Grove School of Engineering, The City College of New York – features Neural Engineering lab in BME including Dr. Simon Kelly and Dr. Marom Bikson and several students.

What makes CCNY a unique place nationally for undergraduate and gradates students to obtain training in state-of-the-art research techniques and preparation for life long learning and success.  In Dr. Bikson’s word “grit”.

Video of Marom Bikson introducing tDCS research

Watch a brief video of Dr. Bikson introducing research on the mechanisms of tDCS as part of the 2014 Dose Response Conference





FranceTV features our lab for “Electrodes for a better brain”

In French. Mag 6, 2014.

Watch it here

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Special CCNY NE seminar (June 5): Efren Alvarez Salvado

Special lecture Efren Alvarez Salvado from Santiago Casal’s lab, Spain.

He will talk about  “Information’s Gate: Network plasticity in the hippocampus’.

Here the link for more information of the research conducted in his lab:

The lecture will be in Steinman Hall room 560 tomorrow, Thursday June 5 at 2:00 PM.


More images- 2014 CCNY commencement

Prof. Marom Bikson and Berkan Guleyupoglu (MS 2014)

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Lucas Parra and Marom Bikson “hood” Davide Reato at 2014 commencement

Congratulations to DR Davide Reato.

Image: Prof. Lucas Parra, Davide Reato (PhD 2014), Prof Mitch Schaffler (back), Prof. Marom Bikson

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Paper: Neural stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain in spinal cord injury

Targeted therapies using electrical and magnetic neural stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain in spinal cord injury

Neuroimage 85 (2014) 1003-1013

Ingrid Moreno-Duarte , Leslie R. Morse, Mahtab Alam, Marom Bikson, Ross Zafonte, Felipe Fregni

Download PDFBikson_targetedtherapy               Pubmed link

Chronic neuropathic pain is one of the most common and disabling symptoms in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Over two-thirds of subjects with SCI suffer from chronic pain influencing quality of life, rehabilitation, and recovery. Given the refractoriness of chronic pain to most pharmacological treatments, the majority of individuals with SCI report worsening of this condition over time. Moreover, only 4–6% of patients in this cohort report improvement. Novel treatments targeting mechanisms associated with pain-maladaptive plasticity, such as electromagnetic neural stimulation, may be desirable to improve outcomes. To date, few, small clinical trials have assessed the effects of invasive and noninvasive nervous system stimulation on pain after SCI.

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New Paper: Informing dose design by modeling transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation

Clinical Neurophysiology 2014 [epub]

PDF (pre-print) Bikson_tSDCS_model

PubMed link 

The progression of tsDCS as an effective therapeutic modality in the treatment of movement disorders and neurorehabilitation depends on a series rigorous clinical trials. With a near infinite combination of dose designs and trial protocols, the evolution of this clinical work will greatly benefit from effective tsDCS models.

See also the Soterix tsDCS device here 

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Berkan Guleyupoglu is our newest MS graduate.

Today Berkan Guleyupoglu successfully defended his masters thesis!!

Abstract: Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) encompasses all methods of non-invasive current application to the brain used in research and clinical practice. We present the first comprehensive and technical review, explaining the evolution of tES in both terminology and dosage over the past 100 years of research to present day. Current transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation (tPCS) approaches such as Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) descended from Electrosleep (ES) through Cranial Electro-stimulation Therapy (CET), Transcerebral Electrotherapy (TCET), and NeuroElectric Therapy (NET) while others like Transcutaneous Cranial Electrical Stimulation (TCES) descended from Electroanesthesia (EA) through Limoge, and Interferential Stimulation. Prior to a contemporary resurgence in interest, variations of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation were explored intermittently, including Polarizing current, Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS), and Transcranial Micropolarization. The development of these approaches alongside Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and pharmacological developments are considered. Both the roots and unique features of contemporary approaches such as transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) and transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) are discussed. Trends and incremental developments in electrode montage and waveform spanning decades are presented leading to the present day. Commercial devices, seminal conferences, and regulatory decisions are noted. This is concluded with six rules on how increasing medical and technological sophistication may now be leveraged for broader success and adoption of tES.

Despite this history, questions regarding the efficacy of ES remain including optimal dose (electrode placement and waveform). An investigation into brain electric field and current density produced by various montages that are historically relevant to ES was done to evaluate how these montages effect the brain. MRI-derived head models that were segmented using an automated segmentation algorithm and manual corrections were solved for four different electrode montages. The montages that were used are as follows: Sponge electrode on left and right eyes (active), Sponge electrodes over left and right mastoids (return); Sponge electrodes above left and right eyes (active), Sponge electrodes over left and right mastoids (return); High-Definition (HD) electrodes on AF3 and AF4 (active), 5×7 cm sponge on neck (return); HD electrodes on AF3 and AF4 (active), 5×7 sponge electrode on Iz (return). A high concentration of electric field was found on the optic nerve, with levels lowered as the electrodes moved further away from the eyes. There was also a moderate current density on the amygdala, a center involved with anxiety, as well as high electric fields on the brain stem which are centers for sleep.

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New Paper: Understanding tDCS effects in schizophrenia

Understanding tDCS effects in schizophrenia: a systematic review of clinical data and an integrated computation modeling analysis 

Expert Rev. Med. Devices 11(4)

Andre Russowsky Brunoni, Pedro Shiozawa, Dennis Truong, Daniel C Javitt, He ́lio Elkis, Felipe Fregni, Marom Bikson

Read the PDF: Final Version Brunoni et al., tDCS in Sz, Exp Rev Med Dev 2014      (author proof version Bikson_Schizo_2014 )

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M Bikson quoted in NPR articles on tDCS

Hacking The Brain With Electricity: Don’t Try This At Home


Listen here
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Dr. Bikson joins panel on tDCS for Depression at SOBP 2014

Update: Download Slides PDF SOBP_Bikson2

The Society of Biological Psychiatry 2014 meeting in NYC features a symposium on

Technical and Mechanistic Foundations of tDCS: Emerging applications in Major Depressive Disorder“.

Hilton Midtown. Location: Gremercy A – 2nd Floor. Time: May 8 12:30-2:30pm.

12:40-1:00pm – Marom Bikson, CUNY, USA – Biophysical Foundations of tDCS: Evidence from Computer Models and Animal Studies
1:00-1:20pm – Michael A. Nitsche, Göttingen University, Germany – Translational use of tDCS in Major Depressive Disorder: Focus on Neuroplasticity
1:20-1:40pm – Collen Loo, University of New South Wales, Australia – TDCS as a Monotherapy for Depression: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial and Follow-up study
1:40-2:00 pm – André R. Brunoni, University of São Paulo, Brazil – TDCS as an add-on Therapy: The Augmentative Role of tDCS for the treatment of Depression

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BONSAI and SPHERES free modeling tools; Brain Stimulation Paper

The BONSIA and SPHERES free modeling tools are live and FREE. The most advanced AND simple to use freely available modeling packages to help design TES montages including for tDCS, tACS, tRNS, and more. Check them out and give us your feedback on how to improve!

Read the PDF of the epub: BONSAI_bikson_2014

BONSAI is online here

SPHERES is online here

The paper explaining the principles is here

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WIRED articles features HD-tDCS invented by our lab

WIRED magazine published two major articles on transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. The article focused on clinical trials and technology features Dr. Marom Bikson as well as High-Definition tDCS which was invented at CCNY and commercialized by Soterix Medical.

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Bikson Lab awarded two NIH grants on Medical Device Design

R21 (2 years): Modulation of blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability by tDCS relevant electric fields

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation technique investigated
for a broad range of medical and performance indications. Understanding the cellular mechanisms of tDCS will
increase the rigor of ongoing studies and provide a rational basis for dose optimization. Prior mechanistic
studies have focused exclusively on direct polarization of neuronal membranes by direct current stimulation
(DCS). We propose to test the hypothesis that tDCS directly and transiently modulates blood-brain-barrier
(BBB) function, which in turn would modulate neuronal activity. Our approach is to use state-of-the-art animal
and tissue models and characterization to determine if a new-class of cellular targets, namely endothelial cells,
respond to DCS. These approaches including multi-photon transcranial quantitative imaging of vascular
permeability during and after DCS and isolation of molecular and generic responses of endothelial barriers.
Because understanding every cellular target of stimulation is required for a comprehensive mechanism, the
modulation of BBB by tDCS, in conjunction with direct neuronal effects, is novel and critical to research. This
study will be the first to establish the feasibility of direct BBB actions by tDCS as well as quantitatively predict
the impact of these changes on neuronal function.

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R03 (one year): Wireless Pulse Oximetry (WiPOX) for Diagnosing Intra-Operative Ischemia

Tissue ischemia is a major cause of wound dehiscence or anastomotic leakage
resulting in significant morbidity and mortality and occurs at a rate of 15 to 25%. Although
measurement of systemic blood oxygenation status by pulse oximetry on the finger is a
mandatory requirement for every single patient while in the hospital, there are no devices or
methods available to measure tissue oxygenation following complex surgical resections and
reconstructions in the operating room. Increasingly, surgical procedures are performed by
minimally invasive techniques, which add complexity to the problem, as surgeons do not have
the opportunity to directly touch, feel or visualize the organs. In a collaboration between The
City College of New York (CCNY) bioengineering design team and Memorial Sloan-Kettering
Cancer Center (MSKCC) surgeons, we have successfully designed, constructed and tested a
novel wireless, handheld intraoperative oximetry (WiPOX) device, which provides real-time,
accurate, and convenient intraoperative monitoring of the tissue oxygenation ensuring tissue
viability thereby improving surgical outcomes, decreasing mortality, patient hospitalization and
the associated costs. In this R03 proposal, based on the feedback from the ongoing clinical trial,
we will enhance device performance and accuracy through two further innovations:
incorporation of onboard pressure sensors to allow reliable tissue contact and enhancement of
S/N through wireless integration with a systemic pulse oximeter. A pipeline for preclinical and
clinical testing is in place. These innovative modifications are crucial for surgeons to take the
next step of this device utility – to modify the surgical procedure based on tissue oxygenation

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Multiple Neuromodulation and Psychiatry events in NYC May 3-10

!!! A lot is going on in NYC on the week of May 3-10 including:

The International Society of ECT and Neuromodulation (May 3-5)

The annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association (May 3-7)

Clinical TMS Society Annual Meeting (May 3-5)

The NYC tDCS workshop at CCNY (May 6-7)

Society of Biologic Psychiatry Meeting (May 8-10). 


Some highlights from the week:

Full program details of the Neuromodec tDCS workshop are here and include presentations by leaders in neuromodulation May 6-7.

The Society of Biologic Psychiatry Meeting includes a special session of tDCS for Depression with this amazing program: “Technical and Mechanistic Foundations of tDCS: Emerging applications in Major Depressive Disorder“. Location: Hilton New York Midtown – Gremercy A – 2nd Floor. Time: May 8 12:30-2:30pm.

•12:40-1:00pm – Marom Bikson, CUNY, USA – Byophysical Foundations of tDCS: Evidence from Computer Models and Animal Studies

•1:00-1:20pm – Michael A. Nitsche, Göttingen University, Germany – Translational use of tDCS in Major Depressive Disorder: Focus on Neuroplasticity

•1:20-1:40pm – Collen Loo, University of New South Wales, Australia – TDCS as a Monotherapy for Depression: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial and Follow-up study

•1:40-2:00 pm – André R. Brunoni, University of São Paulo, Brazil – TDCS as an add-on Therapy: The Augmentative Role of tDCS for the treatment of Depression



New Papers on tDCS: “It’s all in your head” and “The value and cost in modelling”

The value and cost of complexity in predictive modelling: role of tissue anisotropic conductivity and fibre tracts in neuromodulation

download the PDF: Bikson_JNE_ValueCost

SS Shahid, M Bikson, H Salman, P Wen, T Ahfock – Journal of Neural Engineering, 2014

Objectives. Computational methods are increasingly used to optimize transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) dose strategies and yet complexities of existing approaches limit their clinical access. Since predictive modelling indicates the relevance of subject/


It’s all in your head: reinforcing the placebo response with tDCS

download the PDF   TEXT

HM Schambra, M Bikson, TD Wager, MF DosSantos… – Brain Stimulation, 2014; Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 623–624,

The mechanisms of action of tDCS for behavioral modification are not yet fully understood. However, 3 one common observation is that its behavioral effects are most pronounced and long-lasting when tDCS 4 is paired with endogenous, training-induced brain activity (1). In



Our NYC Neuromodulation 2013 Abstracts published in Brain Stimulation Journal

Full List of Abstracts from our Lab from NYC Neuromodulation 2013 in Brain Stimulation:

  • Berkan Guleyupoglu, Alexander David, Marom Bikson. Electrosleep revisited: A new look into an old technique. NYC Neuromodulation 2013 Abstract, Published in Brain Stimulation Vol. 7, Issue 2, Page e10
  • Belen Lafon, Asif Rahman, Marom Bikson, Lucas C. Parra            . Direct current stimulation modulates the synaptic input required for firing. NYC Neuromodulation 2013 Abstract, Published in Brain Stimulation Vol. 7, Issue 2, Page e11
  • Jessica Berard, Isis E. Martínez-Hernández, Abhishek Datta, Marom Bikson, et al. Effects of montage configuration on cortical excitability NYC Neuromodulation 2013 Abstract, Published in Brain Stimulation Vol. 7, Issue 2, Page e15
  • Ole Seibt, Albert Mokrejs, Marom Bikson. HD-Electrode assembly design for decreased transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) current density on the skin: A FEM modeling study. NYC Neuromodulation 2013 Abstract, Published in Brain Stimulation Vol. 7, Issue 2, Page e10
  • Dennis Q. Truong, Berkan Guleyupoglu, Abhishek Datta, Preet Minhas, Marom Bikson et al. Inter-Individual Variation during Transcranial Direct Current Simulation and Normaliziation of Dose Using MRI-Derived Computational Models NYC Neuromodulation 2013 Abstract, Published in Brain Stimulation Vol. 7, Issue 2, Page e10
  • Mahtab Alam, Marom Bikson, Dennis Truong. Spatial and polarity precision of High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) NYC Neuromodulation 2013 Abstract, Published in Brain Stimulation Vol. 7, Issue 2, Page e11
  • Dennis Truong, Preet Minhas, Albert Mokrejs, Marom Bikson. Customization of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for susceptible populations including at the extremes of age, obesity, and stroke NYC Neuromodulation 2013 Abstract, Published in Brain Stimulation Vol. 7, Issue 2, Page e5-e6
  • Jessica D. Richardson, Paul Fillmore, Abhishek Datta, Dennis Truong, Marom Bikson et al. Sham protocols for transcranial direct current stimulation using high-definition electrodes NYC Neuromodulation 2013 Abstract, Published in Brain Stimulation Vol. 7, Issue 2, Page e8


Video Update: Prof. Bikson Cleveland FES Center (Dec 6)

UPDATE Video Posted Here:

Prof. Marom Bikson speaks on

“Biophysical Foundations of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), Frontiers of Technology Optimization”

Friday, December 6, 2013 • 8:30 AM
Biomedical Research Building 105. Case Western Reserve University

Full talk slides here PDF only Bikson_Marom_FEScenter_Clev2013final

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Dr. Bikson speaks at 2014 Neuromodulation Symposium

April 10+11, 2014 Marom Bikson lectured on Technology and Mechanisms of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

Full program here

Slides here: MinnNeuromod2014_MaromBikson

Image: Dr. Anthony Barker (co-inventor TMS) with MB.




Dr. Bikson speaks at ICCN 2014 (Berlin) on tDCS specificity

Marom Bikson explains the concepts of Anatomical and Functional targeting. March 22, 2014, Berlin Germany


what the talk here on YouTube

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Marom Bikson speaks at Gottingen Course on NIBS: March 18

“Network oscillations as a substrate for tACS modulation of learning and plasticity: cellular and quantitative insights from brain slice”

11th Practical Course in Transcranial Magnetic and Electrical Stimulation

Directors: A. Antal & W. Paulus

Gottingen, Germany March 18, 2013

PDF of slides: Gottingen2014a_Bikson_final

PPT of slides: Gottingen2014a_Bikson_final



New Paper: Space, time, and causality in the human brain

Neuroimage. 2014; 92: 285-297
Abstract: The ability to perceive causality is a central human ability constructed from elemental spatial and temporal information present in the environment. Although the nature of causality has captivated philosophers and scientists since antiquity, the neural correlates of causality remain poorly understood. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to generate hypotheses for candidate brain regions related to component processes important for perceptual causality in the human brain: elemental space perception, elemental time perception, and decision-making (Experiment 1; n=16). We then used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to test neural hypotheses generated from the fMRI experiment (Experiment 2; n=16). In both experiments, participants judged causality in billiard-ball style launching events; a blue ball approaches and contacts a red ball. Spatial and temporal contributions to causal perception were assessed by parametrically varying the spatial linearity and the temporal delays of the movement of the balls. Experiment 1 demonstrated unique patterns of activation correlated with spatial, temporal, and decision-making components of causality perception. Using tDCS, we then tested hypotheses for the specific roles of the parietal and frontal cortices found in the fMRI experiment. Parietal stimulation only decreased participants’ perception of causality based on spatial violations, while frontal stimulation made participants less likely to perceive causality based on violations of space and time. Converging results from fMRI and tDCS indicate that parietal cortices contribute to causal perception because of their specific role in processing spatial relations, while the frontal cortices contribute more generally, consistent with their role in decision-making.
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IEEE Spectrum: “The Latest DIY Craze: Brain Hacking”

Dr. Marom Bikson interviewed for IEEE Spectrum article.

Home experimenters are building rigs to send currents through their heads

By Eliza Strickland



Dr. Bikson speaks to Columbia Medical: Seizure control with tDCS (March 14)

A new paradigm for non-invasive seizure control: the DSES trial and adaptive High-Definition tDCS

March 14th. 12:15 PM.  710 West 168th Street/Fort Washington Ave on the SW corner, 7th floor conference room.

Covering decades of animal research (review) leading to current clinical trial (link) funder by the Epilepsy Foundation.

PDF of slides- download status_2014b

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Marom Bikson to speak at Adaptive Responses Conference: April 22-23, Amherst

13th Annual International Conference on Dose Response

Apr 22 2014 to Apr 23 2014  —  Location: UMass Amherst, Amherst, MA

online info here                                  full conference brochure here

The 2014 Dose-Response, Preconditioning: Adaptive Responses in Biology and Medicine will explore the rapidly emerging area of Preconditioning, its biomedical implications, its dose response features and its underlying mechanisms.  Speakers at the conference will address recent discoveries concerning how preconditioning may be used to protect against environmental stressor agents, slow down and prevent a wide range of neurological and cardiovascular diseases, and how such knowledge can be translated into medical practice, taking into consideration the challenges of human inter-individual variation.  The convergence of scientists from multiple disciplines on this topic is designed to provide a greater interactive focus on the topic of low dose responses and hopefully prevent further professional/academic isolation with respect to language, concept and interpretation of low dose effects.  The conference will also provide the most current advances in the nature of the dose response with respect to chemical and radiation induced stresses as well as a host of effects of pharmaceutical agents that have profound biomedical and risk assessment implications.


Book your spot now: NYC tDCS Workshop May 6+7

Dr. Marom Bikson joins an international panel of tDCS experts for the NEUROMODEC NYC tDCS Workshop.

And intensive expert-level two-day international meeting dedicated on the design and implementation of tDCS clinical trials. Update on 2014 state-of-the-art methodology with presentations and discussions on the development of professional standards for safety, validity and reproducibility of functional outcomes in tDCS in clinical practice.

More info here  EVENT WILL SELL OUT



Marom Bikson on KQED (NPR)

Is Brain Stimulation a Medicine of the Future?

March 3, 2014

Article Link



Marom Bikson to speak at 30th International Congress of Clinical Neurophysiology (ICCN)

30th International Congress of Clinical Neurophysiology (ICCN) of the IFCN

Berlin, Germany – May 19 to 23, 2014   Conference Details link

Dr. Bikson will present the working draft of a consensus paper by leader in animal researched on tDCS mechanisms.

Dr. Bikson will also address the Gottingen neuromodulation course on May 18, 2014.


Special Neural Engineer Seminar (March 4) : Andy McKinley + Michael Weisend

Special lecture on “Enhancing Brain Function with tDCS” featuring two prominent researchers in the field: Andy McKinley, Ph.D. of the Air Force Research Laboratory & Michael Weisend from Wright State Research Institute.


Dr. McKinley’s work was recently featured in the Boston Globe: Pentagon considers using electricity to stimulate troops’ brains and Dr. Weisand recently presented at TEDx: Rewiring your brain


The lecture will be in Steinman Hall room 560 tomorrow, Tuesday March 4 at 2:30 PM.


Dr. Bikson speaks at George Mason University

12:00 pm Brownbag, Sub 1, room 3B: “Basic principles and practices of tDCS


New Paper: tDCS of cerebellar neurons, multi-scale model

Clin Neurophysiol. 2013 Oct 28. pii: S1388-2457(13)01106-1. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2013.10.003.

Polarizing cerebellar neurons with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

Full PDF:  ClinicalNeurophys2014_CerebellartDCS

Journal Link

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Special CCNY Seminar: Gyorgy Buzsaki, Feb 28

Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Colloquium
February 28, 2014

Gyorgy Buzsaki
New York University

“Oscillations organize cell assemblies”


New Paper: Frontal tDCS modulates orbitofrontal reality filtering. Neuroscience 2014

A.L. Manuel, A.W. David, M. Bikson, A. Schnider.

Neuroscience 265 (2014) 21-27

Abstract: Orbitofrontal reality filtering denotes a memory control mechanism necessary to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality. Its failure induces reality confusion as evident in confabulation and disorientation. In the present study, we explored the influence of orbitofrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on reality filtering. Twenty healthy human subjects made a reality filtering task, while receiving cathodal, anodal, or sham stimulation over the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in three sessions separated by at least 1 week. Computational models predicted that this montage can produce polarity-specific current flow across the posterior medial OFC. In agreement with our hypothesis, we found that cathodal tDCS over the frontal pole specifically impaired reality filtering in comparison to anodal and sham stimulation. This study shows that reality filtering, an orbitofrontal function, can be modulated with tDCS.

Journal Link             Full PDF: tDCS_Manuel_Bikson_2004_frontalrealityfiltering        PubMed Link

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Old Picture: Lab Dinner

Clock-wise from bottom left – Nicole Febles, Trevian Neptune, Marom Bikson, Thomas Radman, Abhishek Datta, Je Hi An, Davide Reato



Prof. Marom Bikson elected Deputy Editor for Technology and Modeling for Brain Stimulation Journal

Effective Jan 1, 2014, Dr. Marom Bikson will serve as Deputy Editor for Technology and Modeling for Brain Stimulation Journal.

Brain Stimulation aims to be the premier journal for publication of original research in the field of neuromodulation. The new position for Technology and Modeling will focus on highlighting innovations in brain stimulation technology, clinical trial design, regulations and standards, and translational modeling.

C4shd placement


Participate in a paid study!

Thanks for your interest in participating in a paid study!
Please email with your name and age and we will get back to you about current opportunities!


We are hiring: Slice Electrophysiology Post-Doc and a Electrical Engineer

Position NE7.1:  A full-time post-doctoral position in brain slice neurophysiology is available in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at The City College of New York of The City University of New York. The position involves studies focused on the cellular mechanisms of non-invasive neuromodulation, such as transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).  Despite being the fastest growing and most promising new therapy for neuropsychiatric disorders, rehabilitation, and neuro-enhancement (healthy individuals), fundamental questions remain about the mechanisms of tDCS.  The applicant will have the opportunity to work with leaders in characterizing the cellular effects of stimulation using brain slice studies and modeling, and moreover to interact with a broad range of engineers and clinicians with the goals of translating insights to new technologies and applications.  Further information on the Neural Engineering Group at CCNY can be found here

We are seeking candidates that are highly creative, motivated, and independent with a Ph.D.  in neuroscience, biomedical engineering, or a related field.  Candidates must have a strong research background in brain slice electrophysiology, with a record of relevant publications. Experience with patch-clamp and/or calcium imaging in brain slice is required.

Candidates will be encouraged and expected to participate in independent laboratory research, and will be expected to write scholarly manuscripts. Candidates must be able to lead and work well in a team.  Candidates must have excellent spoken and written English skills.  Opportunities for career development (e.g. grant writing, mentoring, teaching) are strongly supported.

Applicants should submit a brief statement of research activities and interests (one paragraph), a current CV, and names and contact information of references.  With a two-year contract, salary will be commensurate with experience and accomplishments as part of an overall research effort supported by the DoD, NIH, and NSF. To arrange a meeting with the PI and to send materials required for consideration for this appointment please contact Dr. Marom Bikson at:


Position NE7.2: A full time Biomedical Electronics Design Engineer at the staff engineer or post-doctoral level

Job Description: Excellent opportunity in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at The City College of New York for an Electronics Design Engineer experienced in digital and analog circuits.  The Electronics Design Engineer will primarily design new medical instrumentation focused on non-invasive optical sensing.  This opportunity will allow you to contribute in all aspects of medical device design and development aimed at developing new therapies including new medical devices used in cancer treatment surgery.  The selected candidate will have the opportunity to interact with world-class physicians and surgeons and benefit from direct mentorship by clinicians.  This is an opportunity where you will need to apply your engineering skills in a dynamic and challenging environment with the goal of improving cancer treatment with next generation medical technologies.

Job Duties:

  • Develop technical design inputs in concert with clinical users and development team
  • Lead all research and development efforts in electronic improvements and next generation devices
  • Guide and oversee mechanical design efforts of all projects
  • Develop engineering test protocols for device verification
  • Maintain excellent documentation of all progress on projects and test reports
  • Lead engineering development team to meet timelines and ensure quality deliverables


BS or equivalent in Electrical Engineering or Biomedical Engineering (with electrical engineering specialization).

PhD with emphasis on instrumentation and/or 4 year work experience in electronics design is required.

Experience with biomedical device design and optics/medical optics, are ideal but not required.

Extensive experience with MCU programming, electric circuit design, and electronics a must.  Applicants must be highly motivated, self starters with excellent written and oral communication skills.  Applicants should exhibit high level leadership qualities and have the capacity to lead multi-disciplinary teams.  Experience with grant writing is a plus.

This is a unique opportunity to work with a highly translational project where your engineering skills will have an immediate impact.  This position is through an academic institution but entrepreneurship opportunities are available for capable and motivated candidates.  Opportunities for publication and academic career development are also available for interested candidates.  Send resumes to Marom Bikson


Lab Dinner (for NYCneuromodulation volunteers)

(Left to right): Marom Bikson, Ole Seibt, Dennis Truong, Belen Lafon, Robin Azzam, Peter ToshevIMG_7440


Special NE Seminar: Stephanie R. Jones, Dec 18

Fall 2013 Seminar Series Department of Biomedical Engineering

Wednesday, December 18 @ 3 PM in Steinman Hall ST-402

Human Thalamocortical Dynamics: From Mechanisms to Meaning Via Computational Neural Modeling

Stephanie R. Jones, Ph.D.

Assistant Research Professor Department of Neuroscience Brown University

Low frequency neocortical rhythms are among the most prominent activity measured in human brain imaging signals such as electro- and magneto- encephalography (EEG/MEG). Elucidating the role that these dynamics play in perception, cognition and action is a key challenge of modern neuroscience. We have recently combined human brain imaging and computational neural modeling to explore the functional relevance and mechanistic underpinnings of rhythms in primary somatosensory cortex, containing Alpha (7-14Hz) and Beta (15-29Hz) components. In this talk, I will review our findings showing this rhythm impacts tactile detection, changes with healthy aging and practice, and is modulated with attention. Constrained by the human imaging data, our biophysically principled computational modeling work has led to a novel prediction on the origin of this rhythm predicting that it emerges from the combination of two stochastic ~10 Hz thalamic drives to the granular/infragranular and supragranular cortical layers. Relative Alpha/Beta expression depends on the strength and delay between the thalamic drives. This model is able to accurately reproduce numerous key features of the human rhythm and proposes a specific mechanistic link between the Beta component of the rhythm and sensory perception. Further, initial electrophysiological recordings in rodents support out hypotheses and suggest a role for pallidal thalamus in coordinating Beta rhythmicity, with relevance to understanding disrupted Beta in Parkinson’s Disease.

Wednesday, December 18 @ 3 PM in Steinman ST-402


Special Seminar: Empowering Implantable Devices, Dec 16 by Prof. Artan

Title: Empowering Implantable Devices

Prof. N. Sertac Artan, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of New York University

Date: Monday, December 16 Location: T-623, Conference Room (Electrical Engineering), Steinman Hall  – Time: 1:00 PM -Full info EE_Seminar_12162013

From pacemakers to responsive neurostimulators, implantable devices offer vital treatment options. As new therapies are developed, the need for more capable implantable devices, running sophisticated algorithms in real-time, and generating large amounts of data traffic, grows. The severe power and space constraints impose significant challenges to the development of such devices, which should avoid tissue heating, frequent surgery for battery replacement, or high bandwidth requirements. These constraints lead to trade-offs in monitoring and treatment options. As complex engineering systems, the medical implants often require the interaction between various subsystems. An algorithm for extracting necessary information dictates the minimum requirements for the sensors and signal processing path to ensure the quality and integrity of the acquired physiological signals, as well as the bandwidth requirements of an optional telemetry subsystem. In return, the capabilities of the sensors and the signal processing path along with the tight power and space requirements dictate the features and limit the accuracy of these algorithms. Independent optimization of these subsystems neglecting their intricate interactions usually prevents these systems to fulfill their full potential. My research goal is to design next generation safe and highly-capable implantable devices focusing on cross subsystem optimization spanning from circuits and algorithms to networking based on characteristics of the specific target application. Currently, I am working on developing implantable devices for epilepsy in particular and for neurological diseases in general. In this talk, I will give some examples of our recent work on low-power VLSI circuits and epileptic seizure monitoring algorithms for embedded systems targeting implantable applications.


On the cover of special “Neuro-enhancement” issue of Neuroimage

We are honored to be on the cover of the very special issue of Neuroimage focused on “Neuro-enhancement.”

The introduction by editors Vince Clark and Raja Parasuraman is here

Our paper in this issue on fMRI imaging of tDCS effects post-mortem is here: Antal_Bikson_2013

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Dr. Marom Bikson lectures at Washington University School of Medicine (Dec 13)

“Too good to be true?  tDCS applications in cognitive performance, neurology, and psychiatry.”

Friday Dec 13, 2013, 1:30-2:30pm, NIL Conference Room #2311, East Building (4525 Scott Avenue)

“Presenting the second lecture in a series of three on the topic of trans-cranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), organized by Dr. Jeffrey Zacks, and funded by the McDonnell CSN.  Guest Lecturer, Marom Bikson, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at The City College of New York of CUNY.  Prof. Bikson graduated from Johns Hopkins University with a B.S. in Biomedical Engineering (EE Concentration), received his Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering from Case Western Reserve University, and completed his Post-Doctoral research in the Neurophysiology Unit at the University of Birmingham Medical School.  Professor Bikson’s research group studies the effects of electricity on the human body and applies this knowledge toward the development of medical devices and electrical safety guidelines.”

Marom Bikson lectures in special panel at ANCP meeting (Dec 10)

ANCP 52nd Annual Meeting (Hollywood Florida)

Integrative Track – Panel Session 4: At the Crossroads of Physics, Physiology, and Psychiatry: Rational Design of Noninvasive Neuromodulation Therapies

At the Crossroads of Physics, Physiology, and Psychiatry: Rational Design of Noninvasive Neuromodulation Therapies

calendar 12/10/2013    clock 8:30 AM – 11:00 AM  clock Room: Atlantic Ballroom 2

Sarah Lisanby, M.D.  Duke University Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Durham, North Carolina

Zafiris J. Daskalakis, M.D., Ph.D. Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto

Marom Bikson, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York

Angel V. Peterchev, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University

Flavio Frohlich, Ph.D.  Assistant Professor, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Bruce Luber, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina

A rational approach to dosing is crucial to the clinical optimization of approved (TMS, dTMS) and investigational (tDCS, tACS, novel forms of ECT/MST) noninvasive neuromodulation therapies.  Brain stimulation ‘dose’ is multifactorial, encompassing spatial components of the stimulus field distribution in the brain, and temporal components of the pulse waveform and train dynamics.  The development of novel flexible stimulation devices has increased the complexity of optimizing dosage.  This panel will show how computational modeling, physiology, and in vivo preparations can be applied to systematically study the parameter space and derive basic dose/response relationships.  Results point to rational approaches for dose individualization using noninvasive biomarkers, modeling, and/or structural and functional imaging .  Dr. Bikson will present methods to focus tDCS using electrode arrays (High-Definition tDCS) and by integrating tDCS with cognitive therapy.  Dr. Peterchev will address how recent device and modeling developments enable optimization of the stimulus dose, and how to rationally individualize dose, using examples from modeling and preclinical studies.  Dr. Frohlich will show how the integration of electrophysiological and computational approaches can address the fundamental question of how brain stimulation affects the dynamics of large-scale neuronal networks. In particular, he will show how resonance enables the targeted enhancement of cortical oscillations that mediate cognitive function.  Dr. Luber will introduce the concept of covariance-modeled fMRI to individualize TMS coil placement, including a series of studies employing this personalized approach to enhance working memory.  Dr. Daskalakis will discuss the relevance of these approaches to the clinical application of noninvasive neuromodulation therapies, and remaining questions to advance this burgeoning field.


SIMPLEWARE features our tDCS modeling workflow

Simpleware provides world-leading software solutions for the conversion of 3D images (as obtained from MRI, CT, Micro-CT for example) into high quality Finite Element, CAD and Rapid Prototyping models. The Neural Engineering Lab has pioneered the process of resolution modeling of TDCS and Simpleware features this here

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Dec 4 – Marco Sandrini seminar at CCNY on neuromodulation

The causal role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in human episodic memory

Marco Sandrini, NINDS-NIH

Episodic memory is a neurocognitive (brain/mind) system that enables human beings to remember past experiences. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown the involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) in this type of memory. In this talk, I will provide Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation evidence that this brain region plays a causal role in episodic memory. In a series of studies I will show findings showing the contribution of left DLPFC to encoding and of right DLPC to retrieval. Finally I will show a recent study about reconsolidation, showing that right DLPFC plays a critical role in strengthening of episodic memory. I will conclude indicating future studies in this research field and the possibility to use reconsolidation as an new opportunity to modify existing episodic memories, an issue of critical clinical impact.

Time / Location

Dec. 4, 12:15 P.M., MR/801


NYCNeuromodulation 2013 at CCNY a success!

Peter Toshev (NYCneuromodulation director) and Marom Bikson (conference chair).  Many more details coming soon at


Michael Nitsche and Sven Bestmann visit the slice-tDCS lab

Standing by a brain slice rig where direct current stimulation is ongoing (!): From left to right, our own Greg Kronberg, with Sven Bestmann, and Michael Nitsche (the co-originator of tDCS)



Sunset photo of lab at Society for Neuroscience 2013

Min-Fan Kuo (Collaborator), Michael Nitsche (Collaborator), Marom Bikson, Ole Seibt, Mahtab Alam, Asif Rahman, Dennis Truong, Andre Brunoni (Collaborator).





Marom Bikson presents at Israel B.R.A.I.N. Prize

ElMindA & Soterix (Collaboration) one of ten international finalists!

About one third of the world’s population suffers from acute or chronic pain with the effects of pain exact a tremendous cost on health systems and impose emotional and financial burden on patients. Diagnostic and clinical management of pain still heavily rely on clinical symptoms and patient’s subjective reporting while the common treatment for pain is not based on personally customized pain relief. This project (based on a multi-national collaboration including CCNY, Soterix, Elminda, and Harvard Medical) aims to develop a closed loop pain treatment platform, with the goal of offering a focused, specific and personalized approach for the effective treatment of pain. See the vision movie here

 Marom Bikson (CCNY) and Ronen Gadot (Elminda)Screen Shot 2013-12-17 at 11.22.49 PM



Prof. Marom Bikson speaks at first SFN tDCS/tACS symposium

NEWS UPDATE: Over 700 attended the first SFN symposium on non-invasive neuromodulation.  Tremendous interest and quality of research:

Speakers below (left to right): Marom Bikson, Flavio Frohlich (co-chair), Michael Nitche (co-chair), Nadia Bolognini, Nam-Jong Paik, Andre Brunoni.



Prof. Marom Bikson speaks at first SFN tDCS/tACS symposium: PDF of slides an be downloaded here: SFN2013a.Marom_Bikson_tDCS_directcurrentstimulation


Therapeutic Neuromodulation With Transcranial Current Stimulation: Ready for Rational Design?.
Minisymposium – Tuesday, Nov 12, 2013, 1:30 PM – 4:00 PM
Transcranial current stimulation (TCS) is a promising non-invasive brain stimulation approach to modulate and enhance brain dynamics. However, to realize the clinical potential as a therapeutic for a broad range of CNS disorders, TCS paradigms need to become more targeted. Here, we synthesize recent breakthroughs on models, mechanisms, and clinical applications of transcranial current stimulation and their roles in preparing the field for rational design of TCS for therapeutic neuromodulation.
Chairs: Flavio Frohlich and Michael Nitsche

591.02. Mechanisms of TCS: network resonance by weak global perturbations in computational models, animal model systems, and humans. F. Frohlich;  Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.
591.03. Stronger, longer, better? Optimizing physiological effects of tDCS in humans. M. A. Nitsche;  Dept. Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg-August-University, Goettingen, GERMANY.
591.04. Focusing the effects of electrical brain stimulation by High-Definition tDCS (HD-tDCS). M. Bikson;  Dept of Biomedical Engineering, City College of New York, NEW YORK, NY.
591.05. Optimizing tDCS protocols for the treatment of depression: the role of pharmacology. A. Brunoni;  Hospital Universitário, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BRAZIL.
591.06. Optimizing tDCS protocols for motor rehabilitation after stroke: Combining stimulation with motor activity. N. Bolognini;  Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, ITALY.
591.07. tDCS for speech rehabilitation after stroke: which patients do profit most?. N. Paik;  Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, KOREA, REPUBLIC OF.


Prof. Bikson instructs at Harvard tDCS course 2013

Full slides can be downloaded: Boston_tDCScourse_2013




Special neural engineering seminars this week: Dennis Sparta and Elissa Aminoff

This week we have two neural engineering talks at CCNY:

Elissa Aminoff, Carnegie Mellon University

Tuesday Oct 22, Talk at 1pm-2PM, NAC 6/141  “Intrinsic associative processing in scene perception”

Dennis Sparta, Ph.D., Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Neuroscience Center, University of North  Carolina, Chapel Hill

Wednesday Oct 23, Talk at 3pm-4pm, Steinman 402. “Dissecting the Neural Circuits that Mediate Motivated Behavior.”


UC Davis SUMMIT ON tDCS 2013 – All talks watchable online


The videos from the tDCS summit are now up on iTunes and YouTube!  Please feel free to link to them from your website, twitter, etc.

There is an iTunes album that links all the talks at the following address:

And the individual talks are available on YouTube at the following addresses (or can be found by searing for “Summit on Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation”:

Michael Nitsche: (includes data from our lab)

Marom Bikson:

Roy Hamilton:  (includes data from our lab)

Dylan Edwards: (includes data from our lab)

Vince Clark: (includes data from our lab)

Vince Walsh:


Sep 13, 2013 update: Full Bikson lecture Slides Posted here: Bikson_NewtDCSmechanisms_UCdavis_2013

Summit on Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at the UC-Davis Center for Mind & Brain

Thursday, September 5, 2013

9:00 AM – 5:30 PM Followed by a wine reception

Featuring Lectures by:

Marom Bikson, Ph.D. Vince Clark, Ph.D., Dylan Edwards, Ph.D. Michael Nitsche, M.D. Vince Walsh, Ph.D., Roy Hamilton, PhD.

Directed by Emily S. Kappenman, Ph.D.

Registration Required 

UPDATED FLIER (download: tDCS summit schedule )

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New Paper: Dosage considerations for transcranial direct current stimulation in children: a computational modeling study

S.K. Kessler, A.J. Woods, P. Minhas, A.R. Rosen, C. Gorman, M. Bikson. Dosage considerations for transcranial direct current stimulation in children: a computational modeling study. PLoS ONE 8(9): e76112. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076112

Free online access here


Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is being widely investigated in adults as a therapeutic modality for brain disorders involving abnormal cortical excitability or disordered network activity. Interest is also growing in studying tDCS in children. Limited empirical studies in children suggest that tDCS is well tolerated and may have a similar safety profile as in adults. However, in electrotherapy as in pharmacotherapy, dose selection in children requires special attention, and simple extrapolation from adult studies may be inadequate. Critical aspects of dose adjustment include 1) differences in neurophysiology and disease, and 2) variation in brain electric fields for a specified dose due to gross anatomical differences between children and adults. In this study, we used high-resolution MRI derived finite element modeling simulations of two healthy children, ages 8 years and 12 years, and three healthy adults with varying head size to compare differences in electric field intensity and distribution. Multiple conventional and high-definition tDCS montages were tested. Our results suggest that on average, children will be exposed to higher peak electrical fields for a given applied current intensity than adults, but there is likely to be overlap between adults with smaller head size and children. In addition, exposure is montage specific. Variations in peak electrical fields were seen between the two pediatric models, despite comparable head size, suggesting that the relationship between neuroanatomic factors and bioavailable current dose is not trivial. In conclusion, caution is advised in using higher tDCS doses in children until 1) further modeling studies in a larger group shed light on the range of exposure possible by applied dose and age and 2) further studies correlate bioavailable dose estimates from modeling studies with empirically tested physiologic effects, such as modulation of motor evoked potentials after stimulation.


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Published: “Trilogy” of papers in Frontiers Journal on mechanisms of transcranial electrical stimulation

Three papers published in Frontiers of Neuroscience by CCNY Neural Engineering addressing current issues, idea, and challenges in non-invasive brain stimulation:

Berker AO, Bikson M, Bestmann S. Predicting the behavioural impact of transcranial direct current stimulation: issues and limitations Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2013; doi 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00613 Journal Link

Rahman A, Bikson M. Origins of specificity during tDCS: anatomical, activity-selective, and input-bias mechanisms Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2013; doi 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00688 Journal Link

Reato D, Rahman A, Bikson M, Parra LC. Effects of weak transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on brain activity – a review of known mechanisms from animal studies. Frontiers of Human Neuroscience 2013; doi 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00687 Journal Link  PDF: Bikson_tACSreview


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Prof. Bikson recognized at 2013 BMES for Coulter Translational Award

Prof. Marom Bikson was among scientists recognized at the 2013 Biomedical Engineering Society Meeting for the Wallace H Coulter foundation Translational Award.  Dr. Bikson was supported by the Coulter Foundation to develop High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation which was commercialized by Soterix Medical Inc.

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Our correspondence in Nature

Nature. 2013 Sep 12;501(7466):167. doi: 10.1038/501167b.

Neuroscience: Transcranial devices are not playthings.

Comment on: Brain blast. [Nature. 2013]

Read full text here: Transcranial devices are not playthings_Nature 2013

New Paper: History of transcranial electrical stimulation

Journal of Neuroscience Methods 219 (2013) p297-311

Classification of methods in transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) and evolving strategy from historical approaches to contemporary innovations

Berkan Guleyupoglu, Pedro Schestatsky, Dylan Edwards, Felipe Fregni, Marom Bikson

Full text: JNeuroscienceMethods_TEShistory_2013

Abstract: Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) encompasses all methods of non-invasive current application to the brain used in research and clinical practice. We present the first comprehensive and techni- cal review, explaining the evolution of tES in both terminology and dosage over the past 100 years of research to present day. Current transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation (tPCS) approaches such as Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) descended from Electrosleep (ES) through Cranial Electro-stimulation Therapy (CET), Transcerebral Electrotherapy (TCET), and NeuroElectric Therapy (NET) while others like Transcutaneous Cranial Electrical Stimulation (TCES) descended from Electroanesthesia (EA) through Limoge, and Interferential Stimulation. Prior to a contemporary resurgence in interest, variations of trans- cranial Direct Current Stimulation were explored intermittently, including Polarizing current, Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS), and Transcranial Micropolarization. The development of these approaches alongside Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and pharmacological developments are considered. Both the roots and unique features of contemporary approaches such as transcranial Alternating Current Stimu- lation (tACS) and transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) are discussed. Trends and incremental developments in electrode montage and waveform spanning decades are presented leading to the present day. Commercial devices, seminal conferences, and regulatory decisions are noted. We conclude with six rules on how increasing medical and technological sophistication may now be leveraged for broader success and adoption of tES.

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NYC Neuromodulation 2013 Conference: Nov 22+23

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NYC Neuromodulation 2013 brings together pioneers and emerging innovations in Transcranial Electrical Stimulation. Cutting edge research, clinical trials, and techniques are introduced in a dynamic and interactive format. Learn how the field developed to its current state and the outlook for the next five years. Technologies covered include transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS), transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNCS), and High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS). Topics covered include design of clinical trials, integration with monitoring technologies (EEG), and deployable technology. Broad opportunities to network, sponsor exhibits, two large poster sessions, two panel discussions, social event and a certification course provide plenty of networking and educational opportunities. The conference is chaired by Dr. Marom Bikson and hosted at the historic City College of New York in New York City.

More info here. Conference WILL sell out to reserve your space ASAP  LINK


Special CCNY BME Seminar by William J. Tyler, Sep 11 3:00 PM

Special CCNY BME Seminar: William J. Tyler,  Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and Assistant  Professor, School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech

“A Cellular Mechanical Approach to Non-Invasively Modulating Brain Activity With Transcranial Pulsed Ultrasound.” 


The seminar will be held on September 11, 2013 at 3:00 PM in Steinman Hall, Room ST-402.   Department of Biomedical Engineering, Grove School of Engineering  The City College of New York, 160 Convent Avenue New York, NY 10031

Fall 2013 – Journal Club

The Journal Club is back! Every Friday at 2pm in the conference room on the 5th floor in Steinman Hall.


Prof. Bikson to speak at V International Symposium of Neuromodulation, Brazil

UPDATE:  Video of talk poster here Quality not great, follow with slides here: Brazil_2013_Talk1_B

September 16th to September 18th 2013, São Paulo – Brasil 

Prof. Bikson to gives talks on:

Making tDCS effective and specific: insights from computational and animals models 


tDCS in children: dose consideration (full slides to be posted online later)

Full flier here with contact info: Brazil_Schedule-1



New Article: Predicting the behavioural impact of transcranial direct current stimulation: issues and limitations

Archy O. De Berker1Marom Bikson2 and Sven Bestmann1

  • 1Sobell Department for Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, United Kingdom
  • 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York of CUNY, US


The transcranial application of weak currents to the human brain has enjoyed a decade of success, providing a simple and powerful tool for non-invasively altering human brain function. However, our understanding of current delivery and its impact upon neural circuitry leaves much to be desired. We argue that the credibility of conclusions drawn with tDCS is contingent upon realistic explanations of how tDCS works, and that our present understanding of tDCS limits the technique’s use to localize function in the human brain. We outline two central issues where progress is required: the localization of currents, and predicting their functional consequence. We encourage experimenters to eschew simplistic explanations of mechanisms of transcranial current stimulation. We suggest the use of individualized current modelling, together with computational neurostimulation to inform mechanistic frameworks in which to interpret the physiological impact of tDCS. We hope that through mechanistically richer descriptions of current flow and action, insight into the biological processes by which transcranial currents influence behaviour can be gained, leading to more effective stimulation protocols and empowering conclusions drawn with tDCS.

Frontier link

This article is part of a special issue in Frontiers edited by Marom Bikson and Shennan Weiss.


Two HD-tDCS papers available for download – and HD-tDCS methods video is online

M. F. Villamar, P. Wivatvongvana, J.Patumanond, M. Bikson, D.Q. Truong, A. Datta, F. Fregni. Focal modulation of primary motor cortex in Fibromyalgia using 4×1-Ring High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS): Immediate and delayed analgesic effects of cathodal and anodal stimulation. J Pain, 2013; 14(4): 371-83 – Can be downloaded here: Villamar_Bikson_Focal_Modulation_HDtDCS_Pain_2013

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H.I. Kuo, A. Datta, M. Bikson, P. Minhas. W. Paulus, M.F. Kuo, M.A. Nitsche Comparing cortical plasticity induced by conventional and high-definition 4×1 ring tDCS: a neurophysiological study. Brain Stimulation. 2013 6(4):644-8  Can be downloaded here: Kuo_Bikson_HDtDCS_Cortical_Plasticity_BrainStimulation_2013

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Watch the new HD-tDCS methods video


M.F. Villamar, M.S. Volz, A. Datta, M. Bikson, A.F. DaSilva, F. Fregni. Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4×1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) JOVE 2013 (77) doi: 10.3791/50309.

New Paper: Targeted transcranial direct current stimulation for rehabilitation after stroke, NeuroImage 75 (2013) 12–19

Jacek P. Dmochowski, Abhishek Datta, Yu Huang, Jessica D. Richardson, Marom Bikson, Julius Fridriksson, Lucas C. Parra

City College of New York, New York, NY, USA, Soterix Medical, New York, NY, USA, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

Abstract: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is being investigated as an adjunctive technique to behavioral rehabilitation treatment after stroke. The conventional “dosage”, consisting of a large (25 cm2) anode over the target with the cathode over the contralateral hemisphere, has been previously shown to yield broadly distributed electric fields whose intensities at the target region are less than maximal. Here, we report the results of a systematic targeting procedure with small “high-definition” electrodes that was used in preparation for a pilot study on 8 stroke patients with chronic aphasia. We employ functional and anatomical magnetic resonance imagery (fMRI/MRI) to define a target and optimize (with respect to the electric field magnitude at the target) the electrode configuration, respectively, and demonstrate that electric field strengths in targeted cortex can be substantially increased (63%) over the conventional approach. The optimal montage exhibits significant variation across subjects as well as when perturbing the target location within a subject. However, for each displacement of the target co-ordinates, the algorithm is able to determine a montage which delivers a consistent amount of current to that location. These results demonstrate that MRI-based models of current flow yield maximal stimulation of target structures, and as such, may aid in reliably assessing the efficacy of tDCS in neuro-rehabilitation.

Read the full paper here: Dmochowski_Bikson_tDCS_targeted_for_stroke_2013_Neuroimage

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New Video: Prof. Marom Bikson instruction at Harvard tDCS Course 2013

Prof. Marom Bikson of The City College of New York lecture at the 2013 Harvard Medical School tDCS course on tDCS dose and mechanism. Topics include High-Definition tDCS (HD-tDCS), TDCS in children and in stroke, targeting, and optimization.

Part 1

Part 2


Special CCNY Neural Engineering Seminar: Jeremy Hill – Aug 16

Jeremy Hill will speak on “Real-time interaction with brain processes”.

1 pm Aug 16th, BME Conference Room, 5th Floor, Grove School of Engineering


New Paper: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Accelerates Allocentric Target Detection

Brain Stimulation 6(3) 433-439

J. Medina, J. Beauvais, A. Datta, M. Bikson, H.B. Coslett, R.H. Hamilton.


Previous research on hemispatial neglect has provided evidence for dissociable mechanisms for egocentric and allocentric processing. Although a few studies have examined whether tDCS to posterior parietal cortex can be beneficial for attentional processing in neurologically intact individuals, none have examined the potential effect of tDCS on allocentric and/or egocentric processing.


Our objective was to examine whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that can increase (anodal) or decrease (cathodal) cortical activity, can affect visuospatial processing in an allocentric and/or egocentric frame of reference.


We tested healthy individuals on a target detection task in which the target – a circle with a gap – was either to the right or left of the viewer (egocentric), or contained a gap on the right or left side of the circle (allocentric). Individuals performed the task before, during, and after tDCS to the posterior parietal cortex in one of three stimulation conditions – right anodal/left cathodal, right cathodal/left anodal, and sham.


We found an allocentric hemispatial effect both during and after tDCS, such that right anodal/left cathodal tDCS resulted in faster reaction times for detecting stimuli with left-sided gaps compared to right-sided gaps.


Our study suggests that right anodal/left cathodal tDCS has a facilitatory effect on allocentric visuospatial processing, and might be useful as a therapeutic technique for individuals suffering from allocentric neglect.

Read the Full Paper here:  Medina_tDCS_BrainStimulation_2012

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  • Transcranial direct current stimulation;
  • Neglect;
  • Egocentric;
  • Allocentric;
  • Current density modeling


New Editorial: The “Quasi-Uniform” Assumption in Animal and Computational Models of Non-Invasive Electrical Stimulation

Brain Stimulation 6 (2013): 704-705

Marom Bikson, Jacek Dmochowski, Asif Rahman

From the articles ” Computational models of transcranial stimulation predict brain current flow patterns for dose optimization. Translational animal models aim at elucidating the cellular mechanisms of neuromodu- lation. Here we identify and define a ubiquitous assumption under- lying both computational and animal models, referred to herein as the “quasi-uniform assumption”. Though we attempt to rationalize the biophysical plausibility for the quasi-uniform assumption based on the limited electric field gradients generated during stimulation, our goal is neither to justify nor repudiate it, but rather emphasize its implicit use in a majority of modeling and animal studies. ”

Read the whole thing here



Hot off the press: Our modeling studies on Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation and tPCS

Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and transcranial pulsed current stimulation: A computer based high-resolution modeling study

Abhishek Datta, Jacek P. DmochowskiBerkan GuleyupogluMarom BiksonFelipe Fregni

Neuroimage. 2013 Jan 15;65:280-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.09.062. Epub 2012 Oct 5


► CES-induced current passes the skull and reaches cortical and subcortical areas.

► CES induced brain electric fields ranges from 0.2 to 0.6 V/m depending on the model.

► CES induced electrical current varies according to the electrode montage.

► Peak electric fields in some subcortical areas were similar to cortical regions.

► CES induced currents in the mid-brain exceed cortical values in some montages.

Download PDF CES_tPCS_model_Bikson_Neuroimage_2013

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What we do every day in the CCNY Neural Engineering brain slice lab.

Picture from Davide Reato.




New Paper: tDCS dose in obesity

Computational modeling of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in obesity: Impact of head fat and dose guidelines

NeuroImage: Clinical 2 (2013) 759–766

Dennis Q. Truong, Greta Magerowski, George L. Blackburn, Marom Bikson,Miguel Alonso-Alonso

Full PDF: Bikson_Obestity_Neuroimage_2013a


Recent studies show that acute neuromodulation of the prefrontal cortex with transcranial direct current stim- ulation (tDCS) can decrease food craving, attentional bias to food, and actual food intake. These data suggest po- tential clinical applications for tDCS in the field of obesity. However, optimal stimulation parameters in obese individuals are uncertain. One fundamental concern is whether a thick, low-conductivity layer of subcutaneous fat around the head can affect current density distribution and require dose adjustments during tDCS adminis- tration. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of head fat on the distribution of current during tDCS and evaluate whether dosing standards for tDCS developed for adult individuals in general are adequate for the obese population. We used MRI-derived high-resolution computational models that delineated fat layers in five human heads from subjects with body mass index (BMI) ranging from “normal-lean” to “super-obese” (20.9 to 53.5 kg/m2). Data derived from these simulations suggest that head fat influences tDCS current density across the brain, but its relative contribution is small when other components of head anatomy are added. Cur- rent density variability between subjects does not appear to have a direct and/or simple link to BMI. These results indicate that guidelines for the use of tDCS can be extrapolated to obese subjects without sacrificing efficacy and/ or treatment safety; the recommended standard parameters can lead to the delivery of adequate current flow to induce neuromodulation of brain activity in the obese population.

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new paper: Methods to focalize non-invasive neuromodulation for pain

Methods to focalize noninvasive electrical brain stimulation: principles and future clinical development for the treatment of pain

Expert Rev. Neurother. 13(5), 465-7 (2013)

Read the PDF: Methods_to_focalize


Prof. Bikson directs: 2013 Kaylie Entrepreneurship Competition

-Tuesday May 21, 2012, Steinman Lecture Hall –

Please join us for a very special event at the Grove School of Engineering on Tuesday, May 21, 2013 – the 3rd Annual Kaylie Prize for Entrepreneurship at The City College of New York.   In topics ranging from using online tools to change how we wait in lines, changing paper recycling with disappearing ink, to wall-climbing robots in the subway, to innovations in medical technology, the Kaylie semi-finalist teams will compete in fast-paced presentations and physical demonstrations – culminating in the selection of a winner.

The Kaylie Prize for Entrepreneurship was established in 2010 through an endowment by alumnus Harvey Kaylie.  Mr. Kaylie is president and founder of Mini-Circuits, a Brooklyn-based RF and microwave electronic components design, manufacture, and distribution company.  The Kaylie Prize for Entrepreneurship has developed into one of the most innovative and exciting entrepreneurship mechanisms in New York City. It has facilitated rapid acceleration of commercialization of student-generated ideas. The prize is directed by Prof. Marom Bikson.

This event is an opportunity to experience an intensive one-day competition and join a network of NYC area business and engineering leaders.

 So please join us in the Steinman Lecture Hall:

3:30 pm               Opening remarks by President Coico, Mr. Kaylie and Dean Barba

3:44 pm               Introduction of teams by Prof. Marom Bikson

3:45 – 4:45 pm     Short presentations by each of the 5 teams
4:45 – 6:45 pm     Reception and judging

6:45 – 7:00 pm     Announcement of the winners by Mr. Kaylie  


Full paper: Cellular Effects of Acute Direct Current Stimulation: Somatic and Synaptic Terminal Effects.

Cellular Effects of Acute Direct Current Stimulation: Somatic and Synaptic Terminal Effects.

Rahman A, Reato D, Arlotti M, Gasca F, Datta A, Parra LC, Bikson M.

J Physiol. 2013

Download paper: Rahman_Bikson_jphysiol_tDCSmechanisms

Pubmed link 

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Biomedical Engineering Awards 2013

The Department of Biomedical Engineering at the City College of new York celebrates four outstanding graduate researchers from the Neural Engineering group.

Davide Reato – Wallace H Coulter Outstanding Biomedical Engineering Graduate Student Award

Marta Isabel Vanegas-Arroyave – Outstanding Research Project by a Master’s Candidate

John Ettikkalayil – Outstanding Academic Performance by a Master’s Candidate

Maged Elwassif – Graduate Academic Excellence

Congratulations to all!


Prof. Bikson gives second seminar in Oxford, May 9th

9th May 2pm

Making Sense of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: From High-Definition to Individualised Targeting

Marom Bikson, PhD. Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York of CUNY

Seminar Room A, Level 6, west Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital


New 2013 published papers available for download


Physiological and modeling evidence for focal transcranial electrical brain stimulation in humans: A basis for high-definition tDCS

Edwards_Bikson_2013_physiological+modeling evidence for 4×1 humans_edwards_2013


J. Neural Eng. 10 (2013) 036018 (10pp) doi:10.1088/1741-2560/10/3/036018
Validation of finite element model
of transcranial electrical stimulation
using scalp potentials: implications
for clinical dose

Bikson_Datta_validation model scalp potentials_2013


Video tour of CCNY Neural Engineering with brain slices, medical devices, and flying drones

Just a casual video of a day in CCNY Neural Engineering.

Images+Sides from Prof. Marom Bikson’s lecture at Magstim 2012, Oxford

Dr. Bikson spoke at the Magstim Neuroenhancement Conference on May 4th 2013.

Slides (PDF) Magstim2013_Bikson_Marom

and some pictures

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3 new tenure-track faculty lines in “Translational Neuroscience” at CCNY

We have three openings tenure-track faculty positions in “Translational Neuroscience” here at CCNY encompassing clinical, basic, and computational neuroscience. The home department for each position is fairly flexible, though we envision one hire in Biomedical Engineering, one in Psychology and one in the Medical School. Joint appointments with Math, Biology, etc. are also possible. The search will consider all ranks from Assistant to Full professor.

Please also distribute this announcement to students or collaborators who may be interested.


April 30, 2013 lecture “The tongue as visual surrogate: experiences with sensory substitution for blindness”

PRISM Lecture/Neuroscience joint talk:

“The tongue as visual surrogate: experiences with sensory substitution for blindness”


University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Tuesday April 30, 2013, Time: 12:35 – 1:45 PM  Location: NAC 7/236 

Abstract: Sensory substitution is a newer concept for restoring a sense of the environment to the completely blind.  How to test performance for states of ultra low vision in the context of artificial vision, particularly those mediated through non-visual pathways is a new area of research.  This lecture will provide an overview of experiences using the BrainPort and some method to conduct objective and quantifiable assessments of behavioral performances.  In addition, preliminary results of neuroimaging studies using diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) and functional positron emission tomography (PET) will be shown to suggest that the visual brain becomes less organized as a function of blindness duration.

Biography: Dr. Nau is the Director of optometric and low vision services for the UPMC Eye Center, and the founder of the Sensory Substitution Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh. She graduated from the New England College of Optometry and completed a residency in ocular disease at the VAMC in Boston. She practiced at the Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital in Boston for five years and has been at the University of Pittsburgh since 2003.  Clinically, she specializes in medical contact lenses for ocular surface and corneal disease, including scleral lenses and contacts for artificial corneas. Her research interests primarily center on artificial vision technologies for the blind, including sensory substitution. Her laboratory has conducted the largest human studies to date of the BrainPort Vision Device, which uses the tongue as a means to convey visual information to the brain.


Neural Engineering Group Picture 2013



CCNY Neural Engineering “Masters Marathon” and 2013 picture day

UPDATE.  All three candidates passed the thesis defenses!  We are very proud of outstanding projects and presentations.

Showin in picture (left to right):

Prof. Simon Kelly, Prof. Lucas Parra, Marta Isabel Vanegas Arroyave (soon MS), Linford Leitch (soon MS), Dennis Truong (soon MS), Prof. Marom Bikson.



 Friday, April 26th 2013

10:30 AM  “A novel visual stimulation paradigm: exploiting individual primary visual cortex geometry to boost steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP).” MS Candidate MARTA ISABEL VANEGAS ARROYAVE.  Advisor: Prof. Simon Kelly. Location: Steinman BME 5th Floor conference room

12:00 PM “Finite Element Study of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: customization of models and montages.” MS candidate DENNNIS Q. TRUONG. Advisor: Prof. Marom Bikson, Location: Steinman Room 2M13 (floor 2M)

1:30 PM  “Design, Product Development, and Risk Assessment of Tin (Sn) ring electrodes as a substitute to Silver-Silver Chloride (Ag/AgCl) ring electrodes for High Definition – transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS).” MS Candidate LINFORD LEITCH, Location: Steinman Room 2M13 (floor 2M)

3:00 PM  Picture time.  Please meet right in front of Steinman Hall and please be prompt, as we will take pictures right away (if it rains meet in Neural Engineering).  Because we have not updated our picture in years, current and PAST lab members should come.  Please spread the word to everyone (since not everyone might be on the mailing lists).   All students, volunteers, lab affiliates should come.


Prof. Bikson at University of New Mexico April 19, 2013 on “Frontiers in Neuromodulation Technologies”


Prof. Marom Bikson will give a lecture “Frontiers in Neuromodulation Technologies”

at the Department of Psychology Neuroscience Center Open House and 8th Annual Psychology Research Day at the University of New Mexico

April 19, 2013

PDF of agenda and details: PCNC Open House invitation & agenda 4-2-13-2

NEW: PDF of complete presentation Frontiers_Bikson_Marom_UNM_2013_A


New Videos: Seminars by Prof. Marom Bikson, Germany 2013

On YouTube: two new seminars (sorry low quality but good content) by Prof. Marom Bikson in Germany 2013.

  • March 13: Symposium at the the 10th Göttingen Meeting of the German Neuroscience Society on Non-invasive brain stimulation: mechanisms, effects and opportunities  

Video here 

Full slides DoseBikson2013

  • March 19: 5th International Conference on Non-invasive Brain Stimulation 2013. Prof. Bikson to chair the modeling workshop and also lecture on “Using computational models in tDCS research and clinical trials

Video here

Fully slides UsingModelsBikson_2013_Germany

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New Grant award for DoD to research: Cellular Mechanisms of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

With Dr. Marom Bikson as PI, the CCNY Neural Engineering group was awarded a major 3 years grant from the Department of Defense (DoD) Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

During transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), low-intensity DC current is applied across the scalp to enhance specific performance or training efficacy on a range of complex cognitive tasks; moreover tDCS has been suggested to produce minimal side-effects (undesired cognitive changes).  The central premise of this proposal if that tDCS achieves task-specific modulation through a cellular mechanism where only neuronal circuits primed during tDCS (for example by training) are modulated by tDCS, while none primed mechanisms are not modulated.  The specific goal of this proposal is thus to establish a cellular substrate for DCS mediated activation-specific changes.



New York City tDCS workshop on April 1, co-directed by Dr. Marom Bikson, hosted at Burke Hospital by Soterix Medical

New York City tDCS workshop on April 1, co-directed by Dr. Marom Bikson, hosted at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital by Soterix Medical Inc.

We will be there!  The workshop is expected to sell out so reserve a spot ASAP.

Talk by Dr. Marom Bikson, Dr. Felipe Fregni, and Dr. Dylan Awards,

Hands-on workshop on tDCS and HD-tDCS (!) plus demonstration of HDexplore and HDtargets,

Our lab will be running an hands-on modeling tutorial during one of the break-out sessions.

More details at the Soterix Medical website here 

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New paper and cover: “Focal Modulation of the Primary Motor Cortex in Fibromyalgia Using 4×1-Ring High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.”

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PubMed link and read the PRESS RELEASE at Soterix Medical.

J Pain. 2013 Feb 14. pii: S1526-5900(12)00967-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2012.12.007. [Epub ahead of print]

Focal Modulation of the Primary Motor Cortex in Fibromyalgia Using 4×1-Ring High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS): Immediate and Delayed Analgesic Effects of Cathodal and Anodal Stimulation.

Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.

Abstract: Fibromyalgia is a prevalent chronic pain syndrome characterized by altered pain and sensory processing in the central nervous system, which is often refractory to multiple therapeutic approaches. Given previous evidence supporting analgesic properties of noninvasive brain stimulation techniques in this condition, this study examined the effects of a novel, more focal method of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), using the 4×1-ring configuration of high-definition (HD)-tDCS, on overall perceived pain in fibromyalgia patients. In this patient- and assessor-blind, sham-controlled, crossover trial, 18 patients were randomized to undergo single 20-minute sessions of anodal, cathodal, and sham HD-tDCS at 2.0 mA in a counterbalanced fashion. The center electrode was positioned over the left primary motor cortex. Pain scales and sensory testing were assessed before and after each intervention. A finite element method brain model was generated to predict electric field distribution. We found that both active stimulation conditions led to significant reduction in overall perceived pain as compared to sham. This effect occurred immediately after cathodal HD-tDCS and was evident for both anodal and cathodal HD-tDCS 30 minutes after stimulation. Furthermore, active anodal stimulation induced a significant bilateral increase in mechanical detection thresholds. These interventions proved well tolerated in our patient population. PERSPECTIVE: 4×1-ring HD-tDCS, a novel noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of more focal and targeted stimulation, provides significant reduction in overall perceived pain in fibromyalgia patients as compared to sham stimulation, irrespective of current polarity. This technique may have other applications in research and clinical settings, which should be further explored.

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Prof. Marom Bikson to give lectures in Germany March 13, March 19

Prof. Marom Bikson to give lectures in Germany March 13, March 19

March 13: Symposium at the the 10th Göttingen Meeting of the German Neuroscience Society on Non-invasive brain stimulation: mechanisms, effects and opportunities  

Complete slides: DoseBikson2013  Complete references listed available HERE

German Neuroscience Society: conference link 


March 19: 5th International Conference on Non-invasive Brain Stimulation 2013. Prof. Bikson to chair the modeling workshop and also lecture on “Using computational models in tDCS research and clinical trials

Complete slides: UsingModelsBikson_2013_Germany

conference link 

Screen Shot 2012-11-10 at 3.14.30 PM


Prof. Marom Bikson to give series of lectures in Israel

Prof. Marom Bikson to give lectures in Israel (updated Google+ link)

— January 7, 2 PM-3 PM SEMINAR followed by WORKSHOP on tDCS and HD-tDCS

“Transcranial direct current stimulation: Devices, therapies and clinical trials”

The Leslie and Susan Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University, Israel

Directions and details here

— Jan 13, 2 PM

“High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Non-invasive and targeted neuromodulation.”

Abstract: High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) was developed by Prof. Marom Bikson and colleagues at The City College of New York in 2006.  HD-tDCS allows for delivery of low-intensity electrical current to targeted brain regions, is low-cost, portable, and well-tolerated.  HD-tDCS uses arrays of scalp electrodes, energized according to subject specific algorithms, to deliver current in an optimized and safe manner. HD-tDCS is under clinical trial for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders (including neuropathic pain) for stroke rehabilitation (including motor and speech) and as a neuromodulation tool for cognitive neuroscience (including accelerated learning). The technology and applications of HD-tDCS are reviewed.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel University Link

New paper by Davide Reato: “Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Accelerates Human Sleep Homeostasis” in PLoS Computational Biology

A new paper came out on PLoS Computational Biology in collaboration with Lisa Marshall‘s group:

A direct link to the pdf can be found here.

The Neural Engineering Group

(Not included in picture: Devin Adair, Nigel Gebodh, Akshita Chawla, Doris Ling)

CCNY Neural Engineering Group

The Neural Engineering Group at The City College of New York analyzes nervous system function at multiple scales spanning sub-cellular, single cell, tissue, animal, to human cognitive levels.  Similarly, our translational research and development program integrates experimental testing, medical device development, and clinical trials – with the over-arching goal of improving human health through engineering innovation.

In the Media

Events and Seminars

Neural Engineering Research Application



Non-Invasive Neuromodulation Technology and Regulation Meeting

The “Non-invasive neuromodulation technology and regulation meeting” is a national meeting covering topics on the commercialization and regulation of non-invasive neuromodulation technology intended for medical and wellness use. This intensive one-day event is in direct response to the proliferation of clinical trials, popular press coverage, and now consumer-directed devices. The meeting is focused on transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) but spans any investigational techniques or marketed technologies that apply electrical energy to the head. Ample time will be allowed for discussion with speakers.

Date: August 28, 2016
Location Center for Discovery and Innovation (CDI) Room Number – 4352

For more information visit the links below:
About this Meeting
Registration and Tickets

Neural Engineering Lab members can ask for free registraton code from Dr. Marom Bikson or Bhaskar Paneri



Dr. Bikson speaks at Mt Sinai, Oct 19th

Marom Bikson speak “Brain Stimulation” at Mount Sinai for the Brain Imaging Center symposium on October 19th

Details and Registration here 

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Special Neural Engineering Lectures: Patrick Reilly, Feb 29

Feb 29, 2016; 9:30 AM-2:35 PM (with lunch 12:00-1:00 PM)   Location CDI 2nd Floor Conference Room  direction to CDI  (access to building requires special key-card or contacting lab staff).

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Dr. J. Patrick Reilly, among the pioneers in electrical stimulation theory, will provide an detailed overview on theory and application. Topic covered include cellular modeling of electrical stimulation, waveform effects, electrical sensations and pain, Among many papers and books, Dr. Reilly is the author or Applied Bioelectricty and he may have a broader perspective on the development of electrical stimulation theory than anyone in the world. Dr. Reilly will provide a series of lecture from  9:30 AM to 2:45 PM (with lunch break) at the CDI.

Lecture schedule (and slides)

9:30  AM-  11:00 AM    CCNY-1 (Sensation & Pain)

11:00 AM – 12:00 PM   CCNY-2 (Waveform effects)

12:00 PM – 1:00 PM     Lunch

1:00   PM – 2:00 PM     CCNY-3 (ES Models)

2:00   PM – 2:45 PM     CCNY-4 (Combined models)

No RSVP needed. You can attend any portion of the presentation. Slides (three files) can be download here:

CCNY-1 Sensation MT 16-107.compressed CCNY-2 waveform MT 16-108   CCNY-3 ES model MT 16-109    CCNY-4 Combined MT 16-110.ppt



Marom Bikson to speak at TedX Bushwick 2016

Event website and details here

March 26th, 2016

TedX Bushwick 2016 team:


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